Extraction, Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Secondary Metabolites of Coccinia Indica Fruits
In the last few years, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Medicinal plants continue to be an important therapeutic aid for alleviating ailments of humankind. Coccinia Indica (C. indica, cucurbitaceae) is found in warmer and humid part of India. It is also known as Kundru, Bimbi, Lindora. The various extracts of fruit, root juice & leaves of the plant have been reported to be anti-diabetic, dysentery, vomiting, mouth ulcers and bronchitis, asthma and gastrointestinal disturbance. The phytochemicals of this plant include saponin, flavonoid, glycosides and polysaccharides, xyloglucan, taraxerol, carotenoids, cryptoxanthin. The aim of the present study is to examine C. indica fruits for phytochemical profile. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Quantitative analysis of phenolic and flavonoids was carried out by Folins Ciocalteau reagent method and aluminium chloride method respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oil and fats. The total phenolics content of fruits ethanolic extract was (4.3524 mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (5.0900mg/100mg). The present study concluded that the crude extract of C. indica is a rich source of secondary phytoconstituents which impart significant antioxidant potential. This work also contributes significantly to support the claim about the use of this herb in folk medicines. Further investigation regarding isolation and purification of a number of phytoconstituents from fruits, leaves, stem, flowers and seeds of C. indica may yield optimal combinations of therapeutic alternates.
Keywords: Coccinia indica, Qualitative analysis, Quantitative analysis, TPC, TFC, Folins Ciocalteau
2. Arora DS, Kaur J. Antimicrobial activity of spices. Int J Antimicrobial Agents 1999; 12: 257-262.
3. Joshi B, Lekhak S, Sharma A. Antibacterial property of different medicinal plants: Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Xanthoxylum armatum and Origanum majorana. Kathmandu Univ J Sci Eng Technol 2009; 5: 143-150.
4. GoldyYadav., (2010), Medical properties of ivy gourd (Cephalandra indica) : a review, International Journal of Pharmacology Research and Development. vol-2,issue9;014.
5. The Wealth of India, A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. Raw material, New Delhi, (1992), “Vol 4, 312.
6. Shakya, VK (2008), “Antidiabetic activity of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats”, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 20(8), 6479-6482.
7. Porcher MH. Sorting Coccinia names. university of melborn 2006:8.
8. Tamilselvan N, Thirumalai T, Elumalai EK, Balaji R, David E. Pharmacognosy of Coccinia grandis: a review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2011:S299-S302.
9. Vaishnav MM, Jain P, Jogi SR, Gupta KR. Coccinioside-K, triterpenoid saponin from Coccinia indica. Oriental Journal of Chemistry 2001;17:465-8.
10. Vaishnav MM, Gupta KR. Ombuin 3-O-arabinofuranoside from Coccinia indica. Fitoterapia 1996;67:80.
11. Khastgir HN, Choudhuri S, Sen P. Roots of Coccinia indica. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society 1958;35:905-6.
12. Vadivu R, Krithika A, Biplab C, Dedeepya P, Shoeb N, Lakshmi KS. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of the fruits of Coccinia grandis Linn. Int J Health Res 2008; 1: 163-168.
13. Rao GM, Mohana VM, Rao CV, Rawat AKS, Mehrotra S. Hepatoprotective effect of Coccinia indica against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Nat Prod Sci 2003; 9(1): 13-17.
14. Shyam BK, Gnanasekaran D, Jaishree V, Channabasavaraj KP. Hepatoprotective activity of Coccinia indica leaves extract. Int J Pharm Biomed Res 2010; 1(4): 154-156.
15. Ushasri B, Kiranmai M, Ibrahim M. Evaluation of Coccinia indica mucilage as suspending agent in paracetamol. Int J Drug Formul Res 2011; 2(6): 237-247.
16. Maheswari C, Babu P, Meenakshi. Protective effect of Coccinia indica leaf extract against alcohol combined with carbon tetra chloride and paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011; 2(10): 2660-2664.
17. Shivaji PG, Chandrasekhar Rao MV. Antihepatotoxic activities of Ci compound ß sitosterol isolated from fruits and leaves of Coccinia indica. Indian J Pharm Educ Res 2012; 46(1): 7-11.
18. Shakya VK. Antidiabetic activity of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asian J Chem 2008; 20(8): 6479-6482.
19. Mallick C, Mandal S, Barik B, Bhattacharya A, Ghosh D. Protection of testicular dysfunctions by MTEC, a formulated herbal drug, in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat. Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30(1): 84-90.
20. Gunjan M, Jana GK, Jha AK, Mishra U. Pharmacognostic and antihyperglycemic study of Coccinia indica. Int J Phytomed 2010; 2: 36-40.
21. Arshad H, Shadma W, Iffat Z, Hussain MDS. Antibacterial activity of the leaves of Coccinia indica (W. and A) W of India. Adv Biol Res 2010; 4(5): 241-248.
22. Shivhare Y, Soni P, Singh P, Dangi S, Baghel SS. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Coccinia indica (fruits). J Chem Pharm Res 2011; 3(1): 488-491.
23. Niazi J, Singh P, Bansal Y, Goel RK. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Coccinia indica. Inflammopharmacology 2009; 17(4): 239-244.
24. Bambal VC, Wyawahare NS, Turaska AO, Deshmukh TA. Evaluation of wound healing activity of herbal gel containing the fruit extracts of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011; 3(4): 319-324.
25. Chatterjee A, Sumana Chatterjee S. Proximate analysis, phytochemical screening and anti inflammatory activity of Coccinia indica. Int J Pharm Chem Biol Sci 2012; 2(3): 299-304.
26. Mukherjee PK. Quality control of herbal drugs. 2nd Ed. Business Horizons; 2007.
27. Khandelwal KR, Practical pharmacognosy technique and experiments. 23rd Ed. Nirali Prakashan; 2005.
28. Kokate CK. Practical pharmacognosy. 4th Ed. Vallabh Prakashan; 1994.
29. Olufunmiso OO, Afolayan AJ, Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extract of Ziziphus mucronata willd. Subsp. mucronata willd, BMC Complement Alternative Medicine, 2011; 11:130.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).