Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Clinical diagnostic and treatment of COVID 19 of bilateral pneumonia: Case report https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4623 <p>In 2019 year the world was attacked with corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) and in march 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the&nbsp;COVID-19&nbsp;outbreak a pandemic.The symptoms and clinical state in this COVID-19&nbsp;infection was different, from asymptomatic to mild and severe symptoms, which presented different form of disease: mild, moderate or severe, with or without complications. We presented case with COVID 19 pneumonia as one of the form of COVID infection, with diagnosis, treatment and all investigations we done in our hospital. With complex treatment of this virus infection we successful improved the clinical state of patients with COVID 19 pneumonia.</p> <p>Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, COVID 19 pneumonia</p> A Otljanski K Kipevska ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 1 3 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4623 The Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Dissotis multiflora (Sm) Triana and Paullinia pinnata Linn Exert Inhibitory Effect on Escherichia coli Through Membrane Permeabilization, Loss of Intracellular Material, and DNA Fragmentation https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4774 <p>Background:<em> Dissotis multiflora </em>(Sm) Triana and <em>Paullinia pinnata </em>Linn are widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. These plants were found to be a reservoir of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents and have the potential to be used in clinic. Objective: To determine the mechanism of action of the ethanolic leaves extracts of <em>Dissotis multiflora </em>and <em>Paullinia pinnata </em>on <em>Escherichia coli.</em> Methodology: The microbroth dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of <em>D. multiflora </em>and <em>P. pinnata </em>ethanolic leaves extracts. The above samples were tested for their rate of killing of <em>E. coli</em> cells at 1 MIC and 2 MICs. Sorbitol protection, outer membrane permeability, loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, fluorescence microscopy, and DNA degradation assay were used to examine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria induced by the extracts. Results: <em>D. multiflora </em>and <em>P. pinnata</em> extracts inhibited bacterial growth with MICs of 390.62 and 781.25 µg/mL respectively, while the MBCs values were found to be 781.25 and 1562.5 µg/mL respectively. Treatment with extracts had shorter kill-time in a time-dependent manner with effect most pronounced at 2 MICs than 1 MIC. The MIC of <em>D. multiflora</em> increased 4x from 390.62 µg/mL after 24 h of incubation to 1562.5 µg/mL after 7 days in the presence of an osmoprotectant indicating the inhibition of synthesis of cell wall constituents. <em>P. pinnata</em> had no effect on cell wall. Both extracts exhibited the greatest leakage and release of DNA materials at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min in concentration-dependent manner. Treated groups had higher values than control. At low concentrations (1/2 MIC and 1 MIC), these extracts effectively permeate the intact outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Both extract were implicated in DNA fragmentation. Moreover, fluorescent cells observed further confirmed its inhibitory effect against the tested pathogen. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, increase of membrane permeabilization, leakage of cellular material, and death suggesting them to be an alternative to antibiotics. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial inhibitory effect of <em>D. multiflora </em>and <em>P. pinnata. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alian Désiré Afagnigni Maximilienne Ascension Nyegue Janmeda Pracheta Vinay Sharma François-Xavier Etoa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 4 13 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4774 Development and Validation of Q-Absorbance Ratio by UV-Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Metformin and Empagliflozin in Bulk and Combined Dosage Form https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4624 <p>Advantages of simultaneous stability studies are the identification of new degradation products, to understand mutual induction and/or inhibition of rates of degradation and to analyze the degradation products of both drugs. Various ultraviolet spectroscopic and high performance liquid chromatographic assay methods were reported for the estimation of metformin, sitagliptin, pioglitazone, glimepiride and simvastatin individually and in combination with other drugs. All the above reported methods were based on the estimation of metformin, sitagliptin, pioglitazone, glimepiride and simvastatin alone or in combination with other drugs. The degradation products were generated and successfully separated by the developed and validated high performance liquid chromatographic methods for the estimation of the selected anti-diabetic drug combinations. The aim of the study was to develop and validate of Q-Absorbance Ratio UV-Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Metformin and Empagliflozin in Bulk and Combined Dosage Form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Metformin, Method Development, Validation, Empagliflozin, UV-Spectrophotometer.</p> Pushpendra Sharma Srinivasarao Kosanam Surendra Singh Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 14 18 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4624 Evaluation of Antidiarrheal properties of ethanol extract of Brassica juncea in experimental animals https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4615 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-diarrheal potentials of ethanol extract of <em>Brassica juncea</em> in albino rats.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: The defatted powder of whole plant of <em>Brassica juncea</em> subjected to extraction using ethanol in soxhlet apparatus.&nbsp; The acute oral toxicity was studied for ethanol extract according to OECD guidelines 425. The antidiarrheal properties of ethanol extracts was assessed against castor oil induced diarrhea, magnesium sulfate induced diarrhea and charcoal passage test in albino wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The ethanol extract of <em>Brassica juncea</em> has effectively reversed diarrhea. The extract at higher dose 400mg/kg shows significant reduction the number of feces against castor oil induced and MgSO4 induced diarrhea. In charcoal passage test, higher dose of ethanol extract also shown significant reduction in the distance travelled.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The result obtained establish the efficiency of ethanol extract of <em>Brassica juncea </em>as antidiarrheal agent</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Brassica juncea, </em>castor oil, magnesium sulphate, charcoal passage test.</p> Aslam P Muhammad Rawal Pinkey C Ramesh G Chaitra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 19 23 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4615 The case of left loin pain and aneurysm of the splenic artery https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4630 <p>True splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) are rare, but potentially fatal, lesions. They account for 60% to 70% of patients diagnosed with visceral artery aneurysms.&nbsp; They should be differentiated from pseudo ones since the etiology is different.&nbsp; They risk of rupture is high if diameter is &gt; 2 cm and in child-bearing years.&nbsp; In this case report; we describe an encounter of SAA in a patient presenting with severe left loin pain and shock due to acute pyelonephritis.&nbsp; The aneurysm was 1.2 cm and was partially thrombosed and calcified indicating its stability and chronicity.&nbsp; The etiology, types and management of SAAs is discussed.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>abdominal pain, aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, rupture, splenic artery. </p> Kamel El-Reshaid Shaikha Al-Bader Zhaneta Markova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 24 27 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4630 Antibacterial Activity of Haematococcus pluvialis Crude Astaxanthin Extract https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4662 <p><em>H. pluvialis</em> is the potential source of natural astaxanthin, which is considered as super antioxidant. In the present investigation, astaxanthin was extracted from the encysted cells of <em>H. pluvialis </em>with acetone, methanol, DMSO and hexane, the crude extracts were tested for four strain (Escherichia <em>coli, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus</em>)of bacteria for the antibacterial activity. Highest antibacterial activity was observed as 10.2 ±0.20 mm extracted with acetone on <em>Escherichia coli</em> while as least antibacterial activity was found as6.1±0.0 mm extracted with hexane on <em>Vibrio cholera</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Haematoccoccus pluvialis</em>; Astaxanthin; Antibacterial.</p> Ashaq Hussain Rather Surendra Singh Sameer Choudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 28 30 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4662 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of the Hydroethanolic Extract of the Fruits of Solanum torvum (Swartz) (Solanaceae) Use as Vegetable in Togo https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4790 <p>The fruits of <em>Solanum torvum</em> (Swartz), a vegetable-fruit, are used in traditional medicine in Togo in the treatment of infectious diseases and as an anti-anemic<strong>. </strong>This study then focused on the antimicrobial activity assessment of the hydroethanolic extract of these fruits in the interest of contributing to the valorization of this Togolese flora’s species. A hydroethanolic extraction (50 % - 50 %: v/v) was performed followed by preliminary phytochemical tests. Antimicrobial activity was determined on fourteen bacterial strains using the agar diffusion method. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing compounds, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, triterpenes, saponins, total carbohydrates and free quinones. The extract was active on the reference strains of <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>E. coli</em>, <em>S. pneumoniae</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em>. However, this activity was only observed on clinical strains of <em>S. pneumoniae</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em>. The extract showed MICs of 25 and 50 mg/ml and BMCs of 50 and 100 mg/ml respectively for <em>S. pneumoniae</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em>. The MBC/MIC ratio for these two strains was 2. These fruits would then have bacteriostatic activity on <em>S. pneumoniae</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em>. The antibacterial properties of the extract on these germs could justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain bacterial infections.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Solanum torvum</em>, fruits, phytochemical compounds, antimicrobial activity</p> MAMATCHI MELILA Djidjole Kodjo ETSE Firmain SIKA Tètouwalla AWILI Essodjolon KANABIYA Laurance Adjo AMEGAH Hèzouwè MADJALANI Mawuéna Kosi NOVIDZRO Batomayena BAKOMA ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 31 35 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4790 Use of Antibiotics in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Delhi https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4793 <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in URTI patients attending the OPD and IPD of HAHC Hospital, a tertiary care teaching hospital of Jamia Hamdard, associated with HIMSR, New Delhi.</p> <p>URTI account for millions of visits to family physicians each year. Although warranted in some cases, antibiotics are greatly overused. In the present study, an overall antibiotic prescription rate for adult patients with URTI was 45.6% whereas 54.4% patients were on non-antibiotic treatment. In our study the antibiotics were prescribed in 10.5% cases of common cold, 76.47% cases of pharyngitis, 63.15% cases of laryngitis, 100% cases of otitis media and 52.38% cases of sinusitis. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic was azithromycin which was prescribed collectively in 70.3% cases of common cold, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and sinusitis. The combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was prescribed in remaining 29.7% cases suffering from pharyngitis. sinusitis, and otitis media. The antibiotic prescription at Hospital is in line with the ICMR guidelines for URTIs.</p> <p>We found adverse drug reactions in only 9% cases receiving azithromycin and combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The adverse drug reaction reported with azithromycin was diarrhoea, stomach pain, nausea and vomiting whereas only diarrhoea was reported with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combination. No other unexpected adverse drug reaction was observed in this study.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> URTI, Antibiotics, Azithromycin and co-morbidities.</p> Md. Zulqarnain Sanjit Singh Abhishek Prasad , Abdullah Tanaya Palit ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 36 40 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4793 Evaluation of Drug Prescription Pattern using World Health Organisation Prescribing Indicators in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bangalore https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4788 <p>Aim of the study: To monitor the drug use patterns by using WHO prescribing indicators in a tertiary care hospital and to minimise the irrational prescribing practices by the prescribers.</p> <p>To monitor the drug use patterns by using WHO prescribing indicators in a tertiary care hospital and to minimise the irrational prescribing practices by the prescribers.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study, the patients who were satisfying the inclusion criteria will be enrolled into the study. The patient’s data were collected in specially designed documentation form. The collected data’s were assessed using descriptive statistics.</p> <p>Results: The study was conducted in 143 patients in which the average number of drugs per encounters was 3.5 and the percentage of drugs in the generic name was 37.10% (n=190), and in brand names were 62.89% (n=322). The number of encounters with antibiotics was 61.5% and where as 57.35% of the total drugs prescribed was injections. Most of the medicines prescribed were included in the list of essential medicines of India that is 96.09% and without use of antibiotics 38.46% (n=55).</p> <p>Conclusion: Poly pharmacy leads to drug chances of interactions and risk of ADRs and revealed that most of the patients were prescribed with the poly pharmacy and in brand names.&nbsp; The use of antibiotics was much more in the study, which should be minimize so that antimicrobial resistance can be minimized.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> adverse drug reaction, essential drug list, prescribing indicators</p> Ritty Sara Cherian Gaddam Mrudula Stuthy Dhanush Salin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 41 43 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4788 Evaluation of Analgesic Effect of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulation Habb-E-Suranjan and Raughan-E-Suranjan in Wajaul Mafasil (Joints Pain) Patients: An Open Prospective Clinical Trial https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4806 <p><em>Wajaul Mafasil </em>(joint pain) is the most prevalent and common cause of morbidity and disability not only in India but also throughout the world. In spite of various scientific developments in conventional medicine, there is no specific therapy or cure available for joints pain particularly when the disease has progressed to chronic stage. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to explore new formulations from herbal sources which are safe and effective. The present trial was undertaken to scientifically validate the Unani pharmacopoeial compound formulations of Habb-e-Suranjan and Raughan-e-Suranjan for its safety and efficacy in patients with joints pain.</p> <p>Patients with joint pain, who gave written informed consent, were recruited in the study from general OPD of RRIUM, Chennai with the prior approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee. 97 patients completed the study treatment. The treatment protocol was followed for 14 days and the clinical evaluation was done on seventh and fourteenth day of the treatment. At the end of fourteenth day intensity of individual parameters like joints pain, swelling, tenderness and restriction of movement showed statistically significant improvement (p&lt;0.05). Overall therapeutic response of the treatment observed in this study was 100%. It was observed that 47.4% cases were completely relieved; 51.4% cases were relieved while 1.2% cases showed partial relief after the treatment. The laboratory investigations showed that the drugs used in the study were safe as evident by its maintenance. It may be concluded that Habb-e-Suranjan in combination with Raughan-e-Suranjan possesses significant analgesic property and may be a better option for the patients of joint pain.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Arthritis, Joints pain, <em>Wajaul Mafasil</em>, <em>Habb-e-Suranjan, Raughan-e-Suranjan</em></p> NOOR ZAHEER AHMED KABIRUDDIN AHMAD R EZHIL NIGHAT ANJUM ASIM ALI KHAN ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 44 49 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4806 Comparative Study of Different Products of Carbamazepine Tablets Available in Iraqi Market https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4808 <p>Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a widely used antiepileptic drug to control grand mal epilepsy, as well as for the treatment of peripheral neuralgia. According to the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS), CBZ is considered a class II drug. CBZ is characterized by a slow and irregular gastrointestinal absorption, with irregular oral bioavailability; due to its low water solubility. Therefore, the release of the drug from the dosage form (tablets in this study) and the subsequent step of dissolution represent the most important parameters that decide whether a sufficient plasma concentration will be achieved or not. In the current study, the FTIR study for the pure API, CBZ, and the different commercially available brands of CBZ conventional tablets, available in the Iraqi drug market (Mosul city as an example), were examined. Subsequently, various quality control parameters such as the weight variation, content uniformity, friability, and hardness of the conventional CBZ tablets were conducted. Moreover, the disintegration and the dissolution tests of the different brands of CBZ available in the Iraqi drug market were performed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antiepileptic Drug, Bioequivalence; Epilepsy; Generic; Brand vs generic; IVIVC; QC</p> Mohammed K Al-Shaheen Saad M Majeed Radhwan Nidal Al-Zidan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 50 55 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4808 Preliminary Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4646 <p>Preliminary phytochemical tests played a significant role in finding and locating chemical constituents which are source of pharmacologically active principles. By consider the medicinal importance of tuber of <em>Acorus calamus</em>, flower of <em>Senna alata</em> and fruit of <em>Solanum torvum</em>, the present study was designed to screen the phytochemical constituents present in such plant parts preliminarily. The phytochemical analyses were conducted by employing standard methods to detect the presence/absence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, phytosterols, proteins, saponins and tannins. The results of present study revealed that alkaloids were found to be present in all the three plants analyzed and all the three solvents extracted, whereas, glycosides and phenols were absent. The acetone extract of <em>Acorus calamus</em> and <em>Solanum torvum</em> showed the presence more number of phytochemicals (4 each) and petroleum ether extract of <em>Senna alata</em> and <em>Solanum torvum</em> revealed the presence of only one compound. The potential active principles of the detected compounds should be quantified and pharmacologically evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Preliminary phytochemical analyses, <em>Acorus calamus</em> tuber, <em>Senna alata</em> flower, <em>Solanum torvum</em> fruit. </p> E Mohan S Suriya S Shanmugam CP Muthupandi K Rajendran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 56 58 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4646 Formulation of shea butter Nanoparticle containing griseofulvin: a combination of antifungal and anti-inflammatory treatments https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4796 <p>Nanomedicine has been a booming industry with the development of nanovectors to encapsulate water-soluble or amphiphilic molecules for drug delivery. As the new therapeutic agents synthesized are increasingly lipophilic, the development of new nanoparticulate vectors allowing their transport and targeting is now a major challenge. These particles are lipid nanoparticles, a few hundred nanometers in diameter, stabilized by a layer of surfactants composed of castor oil and stealth agents. Solid lipid nanoparticles based on shea butter, stabilized by cremophor<sup>®</sup> ELP, encapsulating griseofulvin, were formulated by the temperature phase inversion method. The shea butter nanoparticles thus obtained were the subject of characterization relating to: determination of the morphology, size, polydispersity index, pH and zeta potential. The results confirm the stability of our preparations. The anti-inflammatory activity of shea butter being known, the tests were carried out on mice. The inflammation was induced by a solution of croton oil acetone. There is a very big improvement in anti-inflammatory activity. This is due to better penetration of the preparation through the different layers of the skin. Griseofulvin release studies have been carried out on our various preparations. Systems designed as reservoirs of active ingredients and intended for a priori controlled release obey kinetics of the order of one-half (½) corresponding to a proportionality between the quantity released and the square root of time. Shea butter in nanoparticulate forms has thus enabled us to considerably prolong the release of griseofulvin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nanoparticles; Shea Butter; Inflammation; Griseofulvin.</p> Sidy Mouhamed Dieng Madieye Séne Ahmedou Bamba Koueimel Fall Moussa Diop Papa Mady Sy Louis Augustin Diaga Diouf Alphonse Rodrigue Djiboune Mamadou Soumboundou Gora Mbaye Mounibé Diarra Oumar Thioune ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 59 65 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4796 Preparation, In Vitro characterization and stability studies of ropinirole lipid nanoparticles enriched hydrogel for treatment of neurodegeneration diseases https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4648 <p>Ropinirole (RP), is a selective dopamine agonist that is used alone or with other medications to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). RP has low bioavailability of only about 50% due to the first-pass metabolism, and it requires frequent dosing during oral administration. The objective of the current research was to develop RP loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (RP-SLNs), nanostructured lipid carriers (RP-NLCs), and their corresponding hydrogels (RP-SLN-C and RP-NLC-C) that might improve efficacy in PD treatment. RP nanoparticles were prepared by homogenization aided probe sonication method and optimized based on particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), assay, entrapment efficiency, and i<em>n vitro</em> release studies. Optimized formulations were converted to hydrogel formulations using Carbopol 934 as a gelling polymer and optimized based on rheological and release characteristics. Optimized formulations were further evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), freeze-drying, and stability study at refrigerated and room temperatures. The optimized RP-SLN formulation showed particle size and entrapment efficiency of 213.5±3.8 nm and 77.9±3.1% compared to 190.6±3.7 nm and 85.7±1.7% for optimized RP-NLC formulation. PXRD supplemented and confirmed DSC results, RP was entrapped in a molecularly dispersed state inside the core of the lipid nanocarrier. Furthermore, RP loaded lipid nanocarriers revealed a spherical shape in SEM images. <em>In vitro</em> release studies demonstrated sustained release profiles for RP from SLNs, NLCs, and their hydrogels over 24 h and were stable over three months at 4ºC and 25ºC storage conditions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Parkinson’s disease, Ropinirole, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Nanostructured lipid carriers, Hydrogel.</p> Kumara Swamy Samanthula Ramesh Alli Thirupathi Gorre ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 66 75 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4648 Development and In-Vitro Evaluation of Budesonide Mucoadhesive Microspherefor Pulmonary Drug Delivery https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4622 <p>Thepurpose of the study was to develop and evaluatemucoadhesive microspheres of Budesonide for pulmonary drug delivery systemhaving prolonged residence time and sustained drug release. Microspheres were prepared by emulsificationsolvent evaporation technique using HPMC, carbopol as polymers in varying ratios. The microspheres were evaluated for its percentage yield, drug entrapment efficiency, particle size and shape, in vitro mucoadhesion study and in vitro drug release studies.The FTIR studies revealed no chemical interaction between the drug molecule and polymers and found that drug was compatible with used polymer. The mucoadhesive microspheres showed particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and yield in the ranges of148 - 164 μm, 68.0 - 85.0%and67.52 - 87.25% respectively. <em>In vitro</em> drug release and mucoadhesion study confirms thatformulationF5 was the best formulation as it releases 81.8 % at the end of 12 hr. in controlled manner and percentage mucoadhesion of 75.2 % after 10 hr. This confirms the developed budesonidemucoadhesive microspheres are promising for pulmonary drug delivery system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Budesonide, Mucoadhesion, Microspheres, Drug entrapment efficiency.</p> jddtadmin journal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 76 81 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4622 Comparative study of the anticoagulant powers of the aqueous macerate, ethanolic macerate and aqueous decoction of the leaves of Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (Annonaceae) https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4668 <p>Data on the anticoagulant power of <em>Uvaria chamae</em>, a plant used in traditional medicine, remain unknown despite its many therapeutic and biological virtues. The present study aimed to compare the anticoagulant effects of aqueous macerate, ethanolic macerate and aqueous decoction of <em>U. chamae</em> leaves. The anticoagulant activity of macerated and decocted <em>U. chamae</em> was evaluated in vitro against endogenous and exogenous coagulation pathways in a pool of displaced normal plasmas. These two pathways are explored using two global and chronometric tests including Cephalin-Kaolin Time (TCK) and Prothrombin Time (TQ). The results obtained revealed that the incubation time of <em>U. chamae</em> macerates and decoctions with plasma significantly influences their anticoagulant power. This evaluation showed that these macerated and decocted products exerted anticoagulant power at concentrations dependent on these two coagulation pathways. This anticoagulant power at the level of the aqueous decocted was more significant (P ˂ 0.001) on these two coagulation pathways but it was more marked on the endogenous pathway than on the exogenous pathway. This anticoagulant power at the level of the aqueous decocted was more significant (P ˂ 0.001) on these two coagulation pathways but it was more marked on the endogenous pathway than on the exogenous pathway. This Ivorian plant could thus be considered as a natural source of anticoagulant agents for medicinal purposes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Uvaria chamae</em>, Anticoagulant, Aqueous macerate, Ethanolic macerate, Aqueous decocted</p> Bourahima Bamba Comoé Koffi Donatien Benie Dahiro Noél Doukourou Brice Herman Wacoubo Doris Leslie Tape Sery Romuald Dasse Karamoko Ouattara ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 11 2-S 82 88 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4668 [DBN][HSO4]-Promoted facile and green synthesis of 2-Amino-4H-pyrans derivatives under microwave irradiation https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4824 <p>The [DBN][HSO<sub>4</sub>] -promoted Knoevenagel condensation followed by cyclization protocol has been developed for the first time by a successive reaction of aldehydes, dimedone and malononitrile to afford 2-Amino-4H-pyrans derivatives in high to excellent yields at room temperature. The synergic couple of microwave and ionic liquid provided the capability to allow a variability of functional groups, short reaction times, easy workup, high yields, recyclability of the catalyst, and solvent-free conditions, thus providing economic and environmental advantages.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: [DBN][HSO<sub>4</sub>], Environmentally benign, 2-Amino-4H-pyrans, Knoevenagel condensation, Microwave irradiation</p> Vishal Mane Dhanjay Mane ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-18 2021-04-18 11 2-S 89 97 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4824 Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Microbial Activity of Novel Pyramidine Derivatives https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4693 <p>Pyrimidine is a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterocyclic">heterocyclic</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromatic">aromatic</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_compound">organic compound</a> similar to <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzene">benzene</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyridine">pyridine</a>, containing two <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen">nitrogen</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atoms">atoms</a> at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. Three <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleobase">nucleobases</a> found in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acid">nucleic acids</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytosine">cytosine</a> (C), <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymine">thymine</a> (T), and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uracil">uracil</a> (U), are pyrimidine derivatives. A pyrimidine has many properties in common with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyridine">pyridine</a>, as the number of nitrogen atoms in the ring increases the ring <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pi_electron">pi electrons</a> become less energetic and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrophilic_aromatic_substitution">electrophilic aromatic substitution</a> gets more difficult while <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleophilic_aromatic_substitution">nucleophilic aromatic substitution</a> gets easier. Chalcones react with aminoguanidine to give intermediate compounds which on further reacts with substituted ketones to give Pyramidine derivatives. A total of 6 compounds were synthesized from one scheme and they were recrystallized by appropriate solvents. They were identified and characterized by various spectral methods. In the present study, all synthesized compounds tested for anti bacterial activity and anti-fungal activity. They shown significant activity when compared with standard drug Streptomycin and Miconazole respectively.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pyramidines, Characterization, Streptomycin, Miconazole, Anti-microbial activity.</p> Konda Ravi Kumar K.N.S. Sneha Sumanjali M. Priya Chandana N. Srilatha P. Koteswara Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-25 2021-04-25 11 2-S 98 102 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4693 Formulation and Evaluation of Valsartan Solid Lipid Nanoparticles https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4694 <p>Valsartan is a potent and specific competitive angiotensin II antagonist which is used in the management of hypertension. It is well absorbed following oral administration, with rather poor bioavailability of about 25 %. Peak plasma concentration of valsartan occurs 2-4 hours after ingestion. Optimized VAL_SLNS are prepared by hot homogenization method and spray dried to improve handling processing and stability. Solid state studies such as FTIR indicated absence of any chemical interaction between valsartan and the lipid.</p> <p>The mean particles size, Polydispersity index (PDI) and entrapment efficiency of optimized formulation (F-05) was found to be 136.5 nm, 0.424, 80.98% respectively. The drug release study from the nano formulation was studied in Phosphate buffer 6.8 for all the formulations F1 F2 F3 F4 and F5. The results demonstrated that V-SLN formulation (F-5) showed biphasic behaviour with an initial burst release followed by a sustained release maximum up to 72-79% till 12 hours. The release curve was found to follow Korsmeyer Peppas model (R<sup>2</sup>=0.98).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> hot homogenization, hydrogenated soya phosphatidyl choline, sustained release</p> M. Chandana M. Venkata Ramana N. Rama Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-25 2021-04-25 11 2-S 103 108 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4694 In Silico Prediction and Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Obeticholic Acid in the Management of Primary Biliary Cholangitis https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4669 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) is a persistent liver disease. Ursodeoxycholic acid is used as a first-line treatment for the past two decades. However, concurrent use of Ursodeoxycholic acid reported with a severe adverse drug reaction. Obeticholic acid has been started utilizing as monotherapy and also with Ursodeoxycholic acid in a patient who is intolerant to Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy. We primarily aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic &amp; toxicity profiles of Ursodeoxycholic acid and Obeticholic acid using <em>in silico</em> methods.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The pharmacokinetic profile of UDCA &amp; OCA was observed from PKCSM server online database, OSIRIS® property Explorer, T.E.S.T. (Toxicity estimation software tool) &amp; Molinspiration® is used to estimate the drug toxicity profiles.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>This computer-aided response provides a great understanding and creates a gap between the theoretical and clinical evidence for UDCA &amp; OCA's preference in PBC management.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Co-administration of Obeticholic acid with Ursodeoxycholic acid will be an effective treatment for PBC in patients with UDCA intolerants. However, both medications are well-recognized substrates of the CYP3A4 enzyme and may lead to unintended drug interactions and side effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Primary Biliary Cholangitis, Obeticholic acid, Ursodeoxycholic acid, CYP3A4, Drug Interactions, Pharmacokinetics. </p> Manali Sudhir Dhage Nila Ganamurali Dhivya Dhanasekaran Sarvesh Sabarathinam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 113 117 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4669 Corona Virus (COVID-19) Symptoms Prevention and Treatment: A Short Review https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4644 <p>There is a new world health crisis threatening the public with spread of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019). Since 2019 when Covid-19 emerged in Hunan seafood market at Wuhan, South China and rapidly spread throughout the world, the virus outbreak has been declared a public health emergency by the WHO. Corona virus causes respiratory infection including pneumonia, cold, sneezing and coughing while in animal it causes diarrhea and upper respiratory diseases. Corona virus transmitted human to human or human to animal via airborne droplets. Patient shows various symptoms like fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness and fatigue. The disease is being cured through general treatment, symptomatic treatment and by other methods. This review outlines the Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Management and prevention of this fatal disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Coronavirus disease-2019, COVID-19, Respiratory Syndrome, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment.</p> Ranjan Singh Surendra Sarsaiya Tanim Arpit Singh Trashi Singh Laxmi Kant Pandey Prabhash Kumar Pandey Neeraj Khare Femina Sobin Ranjana Sikarwar Mahendra Kumar Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 118 120 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4644 A Review on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4642 <p>Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes affecting over 90% of the diabetic patients. Due to the toxic effects of hyperglycemia there is development of this complication. It is typically characterized by significant deficits in tactile sensitivity, vibration sense, lower-limb proprioception, and kinesthesia. Painful DPN has been shown to be associated with significant reductions in overall quality of life, increased levels of anxiety and depression, sleep impairment, and greater gait variability. Hence DPN is often inadequately treated, and the role of improving glycaemic control in diabetes. Major international clinical guidelines for the management of DPN recommend several symptomatic treatments. First-line therapies include tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and anti-consultants that act on calcium channels. Other therapies include opioids and topical agents such as capsaicin and lidocaine. The objectives of this paper are to review current guidelines for the pharmacological management of DPN.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>DPN, hyperglycemia, depression, lidocaine</p> Jasaswi Ray Chinmaya Keshari Sahoo Rajashree Mohanty Rakesh Sahoo Rajashree Dalai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 121 125 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4642 New Era of Formulation as Silver Nanoparticles in Pharma https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4643 <p>In various fields of science, nanoparticles of noble metals, particularly silver nanoparticles, have been widely used. Its specific properties, which can be integrated into the materials of biosensors, composite fabrics, cosmetics, antimicrobial applications, conducting materials, and electronic components, make it a very interesting topic to be studied in the fields of chemistry, biology, healthcare, electronics, and other related fields. Such unique features depending on the size, and shape of the silver nanoparticles. Various methods of preparation for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles have been reported, such as electron irradiation, laser ablation, chemical reduction and biological methods.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), particle size, localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR), characterization, application</p> Abhishek Soni Ajay Kumar Ashish Kumar Amit Choudhary , Happy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 126 131 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4643 A Pharmacological Potential of Adina cordifolia https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4652 <p><em>Adina cordifolia </em>belongs to the<em> Rubiaceae</em> family. Flavonoids, carbohydrate, alkaloid, saponin, phenol, tannins, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides were found in <em>Adina cordifolia </em>plant extracts. Herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine throughout human history. They are widely used today indicating that herbs are a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases and considerable works have been done on these plants to treat chronic Cough, Jaundice, Stomachaches, Cancer, Diabetes, and a variety of other ailments. Present review deals with botanical description and various pharmacological action, and medicinal uses of <em>Adina cordifolia.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Adina cordifolia</em>, Pharmacological Potential, Extract, Taxonomy.</p> Aishwarya P. Dalu Vinayak S. Zagare Priyamala E. Avchar Megha P. Kadam Ashwini S. Ingole Shatrughna U. Nagrik Prashant A. Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 132 135 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4652 A Review on Chemical Constituents, Traditional Uses, Pharmacological Studies of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4786 <p><em>Zanthoxylum armatum</em> used as a medicine from ancient time for cure of various diseases such as toothache and problems related to tooth, asthma, used for gum bleeding, fever, dyspepsia, and tonics etc. Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, diseases, traditional uses etc are explained in this review article .This article have information of the <em>Z. armatum </em>which may have&nbsp; Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, diseases, traditional uses etc. Some latest info of Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, diseases, traditional uses may show clearance in review. Different activities of various diseases known as antioxidants, antinociceptive, antifungal, antinflammtory, hepatoprotective, pesticides, anthelminitic, antiproliferative etc including chemical constituents like resins, 1-alphaphellandrene, linalool, carbonyl compound, methyl n-nonylketone. Linalyl acetate, sesquiterpene, hydrocarbon, tricosaine, dictamine, fragarine, magnoflorine, skimmianine, xanthoplanine. It is expected that more investigation on plant can be done. This review article is helpful to get various important evidence regarding the plant <em>Zanthoxylum armatum</em> which will works as key point for the future investigation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords<em>: </em></strong><em>Z.armatum, </em>Phytochemistry, traditional uses, pharmacological activities.</p> Kapil Kumar Verma Bhopesh Kumar Hans Raj Akanksha Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 136 142 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4786 A comprehensive review on traditional uses, chemical compositions and pharmacology properties of Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4789 <p><em>Achyranthes aspera</em> plant is very useful for the cure and treatment of various diseases of human beings. Different parts of the plants is used to cure various diseases like leprosy, asthma, arthritis, wound, snakebite, dermatological diseases, cardiac disease, kidney stone, gynecological disorder, malaria, gonorrhea, pneumonia, dysentery, rabies, toothache, etc. Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, diseases, traditional uses of the <em>Achyranthes aspera</em> may explain briefly in review articles with in-vivo and in-vitro studies. This article provided the complete latest information on the <em>Achyranthes aspera </em>which may include Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, diseases, traditional uses, etc. Some extensions regarding Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, diseases, traditional uses may explain in this review. Data may have the info about different activities of various diseases such as hepatoprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, thyroid-stimulating, antiperoxidative, abortifacient, antilaprotic, immunomodulators, contraceptives, etc. It may have many chemical constituents Glycosides, saponins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, amino acid, ecdysterone, hentriacontane. Some chemical constituents which are Glycosides, saponins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, amino acid, ecdysterone, and hentriacontane of the <em>Achyranthes aspera</em> used in high range throughout the world. There should be many investigations for these further clinical trials. This plant may be investigated on the next level for a novel drug system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Pharmacological activities, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, clinical trials.</p> Kapil Kumar Verma Akanksha Sharma Hans Raj Bhopesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 143 149 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4789 Mucoadhesive Microspheres: A Targeted Drug Delivery System https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4791 <p>Carrier technology is a novel and groundbreaking drug delivery system. Microspheres transmit the drug by affixing it to carrier particle-like Microspheres, Nanoparticles and Liposomes due to their smaller size and other useful properties. Mucoadhesive Microspheres are an integral component of this multi-particle drug delivery system and play an important function in the delivery of a novel drug. This drug delivery improves the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug. Mucoadhesive microspheres have a longer duration of residence at the absorption site, which leads to the accuracy of the drug targeting at the absorption site and improves the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Mucoadhesive microspheres are formed by either systemic or local effects in gastrointestinal, oral, vaginal, nasal, rectal, ocular delivery. This is the ideal targeting device which could be done in a variety of ways.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Microspheres, Bioadhesion, Polymer, Bioavailability</p> Hans Raj Ankita Sharma Shagun Sharma Kapil Kumar Verma Amit Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 150 155 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4791 A Novel Drug Delivery System: Review on Microspheres https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4792 <p>Microspheres are multiparticulate drug delivery systems that are designed to deliver drugs to a particular location at a fixed rate. Microspheres are free-flowing powders made up of biodegradable proteins or synthetic polymers with particle sizes ranging from 1 to 1000µm. Benefits of the use of microspheres in fields such as drug delivery, bone tissue manufacturing, and the absorption and desorption of contaminants by regeneration. The study shows the method of planning and measurement of microsphere parameters. Microspheres are complex, such as bioadhesive microspheres, polymeric microspheres, magnetic microspheres, floating microspheres, radioactive microspheres. Microspheres may be used in various fields such as cosmetics, oral drug delivery, target drug delivery, ophthalmic drug delivery, gene delivery, and others listed in the study. In order to achieve optimal therapeutic effectiveness, it is important to deliver the agent to the target tissue at an optimum level within the right timeframe, resulting in little toxicity and minimal side effects. There are different approaches to supplying the medicinal drug to the target site in a continuous managed manner. One such strategy is the use of microspheres as drug carriers. In this article, the value of the microsphere is seen as a novel drug delivery carrier to achieve site-specific drug delivery was discussed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> microspheres, method of preparations, polymer, bioadhesion, types of microspheres</p> Hans Raj Shagun Sharma Ankita Sharma Kapil Kumar Verma Amit Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 156 161 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4792 A review on phytochemical and pharmacological values of Aegle marmelos https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4645 <p>India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly referred to as "the World's Botanical Garden." Medicinal plants play a key role in the health and vitality of humans and animals alike. Researchers have been attempting to recognize and validate plant-derived substances for the treatment of various diseases that promote compounds for health and nutrition for the past few years. Bael is a common plant that originated in India (<em>Aegle marmelos</em>). According to a study of the literature, entire parts of the plant, such as roots, barks, leaves, fruits, seeds, and flowers, are used to treat various diseases. Bangladesh, Indonesia, China, and other Asian countries, for example, it is a spiritual, religious, and medicinal plant that can be found all over the world. It has a number of therapeutic applications. Nowadays, various products from various parts of the plant are prepared. The biological profile, botanical description, physicochemical parameters, conventional uses, therapeutic applications and creative aspects are included in this study. The purpose of the present analysis is to compile the general chemical profile, both medicinal and economic value, value-added items such as juice, jam and toffee, and other uses of <em>Aegle marmelos</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Aegle marmelos</em>, Rutaceae, Medicinal Values</p> Krushna A. Lomate Krishna Murthy Vishal S. Adak Rajkumar V. V. Shete ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 162 166 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4645 Review Article Trigonella foenum graecum (Methi): An important botanical drug of Unani system of medicine for the management of gynecological disorders https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4805 <p><em>Hulbah</em> (methi) is a botanical drug used in traditional system of medicine and claimed to be effective in the management of gynecological disorders. In this study the aim is to review the role of <em>Hulbah</em> in the management of gynecological disorders (like <em>Warm-e-Rahim, Warm-e-Unq-ur-Rahim</em>, Cervicitis, galactogouge, dysmenorrhea uterine tonic, emmenagogue, labour pain, <em>Mudirr-e-boul</em>, <em>Mudirr-e-Haiz, Mushile Wilaadat, Salabat Rehm, Warm-e-Rehm, Quruhal Rahim</em>) as mentioned in Unani literature. A review of literature on <em>Hulbah</em> was undertaken using the bibliographic database viz. Pub Med, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus. The search was conducted using the terms ‘<em>Hulbah</em>’, ‘Methi’, ‘<em>Trigonella foenum-gracum</em>’, ‘Fenugreek ’and ‘Hu Lu Ba’. Further, books published in Urdu and English were used to compile the information as representative literature in Unani medicine. The result of review enumerated that <em>Hulbah </em>as such and as an ingredient in various formulations has been used for the management of gynecological disorders since ancient times mainly by the practitioners of traditional medicines. Literature of Unani medicine clearly indicated that <em>Hulbah </em>and its different formulations are safe in gynecological disorders. Sufficient information in respect of Antiarthritic effect, Antibacterial and Antifungal activity, Hypolipidemic effect, Anthelmintic activity, Estrogenic activities, Effect on polycystic ovarian syndrome, Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities etc., of <em>Hulbah</em> are available.&nbsp; <em>Hulbah</em> and its formulations have been claimed by Unani medicine to be useful in the management of gynecological disorders. Modern scientific reports though scarce, also suggest the possibility of such an effect.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Methi: Hulbah: Trigonella foenum gracium:</em> Fenugreek</p> Shamim Ansari Wajeeha Begum Haqeeq Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 167 174 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4805 The Screening models for antiepileptic drugs: A Review https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4809 <p>Considering the prevalence of epilepsy and the problems associated with currently available antiepileptic drugs like side effects, resistance, safety issue and high cost, herbal medicine with fewer complications could be very appropriate alternative. Therefore in the present study, we have examined the antiepileptic properties of ethanolic extract of leaves in mice using maximal electroshock seizers (MES)test, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), induced seizures, strychnine induced convulsion, Isoniazid-induced convulsions, Picrotoxin-induced convulsions, Kainic acid (KA) model etc.There is increased concern on agents for epilepsy disease modification and prevention. To solve these unmet needs, the research scientist must have a thorough knowledge of available animal models of epilepsy so that he can pick up the best model for his research. In this article, we are reviewing the diversity of animal models of epilepsy and their implications in antiepileptic drug discovery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Epilepsy, animal model, seizures, </p> Pooja Popat Gaikwad Vishal S. Adak Rajkumar V. Shete ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 175 178 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4809 Neela Thotha (Copper sulphate): An important mineral drug of Unani medicine to be used in the management of various ailments https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4819 <p><em>Neela</em> <em>Thotha</em> (Copper sulphate) is a mineral origin drug in Unani system of medicine (USM). Chemically, it is known as copper sulphate that formulated as CuSO<sub>4.</sub> It is used by various Unani scholars to manage different ailments in effective and safe manner as <em>Mufrad</em> (single) and <em>Murakkab </em>(compound) form viz. <em>Amrad</em> <em>Jild</em> (skin disease), <em>Amrad</em> <em>Chashm</em> (eyes diseases), <em>Amrad</em> <em>Nizam</em> <em>Hadm</em> (GIT diseases), <em>Amrad</em> <em>Tansuliya</em> (sexually transmit diseases), <em>Amrad</em> <em>Dimag</em> (brain diseases), <em>Amrad</em> <em>Tanffus</em> (respiratory disease) and Poisoning of certain substances. A review was done by bibliographic database from ScienceDirect, Medline, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Ebsco Publishing's Electronic Databases, and Scirus. Search was done by using key words viz. ‘<em>Neela</em> <em>Thotha’</em>, ‘Copper sulphate ’, ‘<em>Tootiya’</em>, and ‘CuSO<sub>4</sub>’, literature of&nbsp; <em>Neela Thotha</em> was also collected from the renowned Unani text book viz. <em>Khazain-ul-Advia, Mohit-e-Aazam, Makhzan-ul-Mufradat, and Mufradat-e-Azizi</em> and also from standard conventional books viz. Indian Medicinal Plants, and Parikh’s Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. In conventional medicine <em>Neela</em> <em>Thotha</em> considered as poisonous substance characterized by colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, severe headache, albuminuria, dyspnoea, circulatory failure, coma and death and avoids its use in human being. While in USM after proper detoxification of <em>Neela</em> <em>Thotha</em> is used in various ailments. <em>Neela</em> <em>Thotha</em> and its formulations have been claimed by Unani scholars to be useful in the management of various ailments. In this article authors have an attempt to explore properties and used of <em>Neela</em> <em>Thotha</em> in several ailments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Neela</em> <em>Thotha</em>; <em>Tootiya</em>; CuSO<sub>4; </sub>Copper sulphate; Copper</p> Kaleem Ahmad Haqeeq Ahmad Khadija Abdul Hafiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 179 184 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4819 A Systematic Review on Various Therapeutic Options for Coronavirus Outbreak https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4650 <p>SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) or coronavirus disease that emerged in Wuhan, China's Hubei province. According to a Wuhan citizen, the virus spread from the Wuhan fish market to humans via a form of waterborne transmission. The WHO proclaimed the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic a global public health emergency in March of the following year. Rather than influencing the individual animals mostly, the movement of humans and a few days later, the infection spread to other parts of the world by the distribution of specimens to animals and by the movement of humans, causing considerable illness in human populations. An estimated one and a total of nearly sixty-eight million two hundred and fifty-six million people have been impacted, including one and a million thousand five hundred and sixty thousand fatalities in more than two hundred countries around the world. As of the present, there are no medicines or vaccinations against the world's first SARS-CoV-2 virus are in clinical trials molecular and cellular studies of CoVs, as well as their care, were reviewed in this latest assessment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; SARS-CoV-2, WHO, Global pandemic, Human coronaviruses, Pathogenesis, Treatments</p> Sharib Raza Khan Babita Sharma Sankha Bhattacharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 185 194 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4650 Effect of COVID 19 on thyroid gland function https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4664 <p><em>The pandemic&nbsp;caused&nbsp;by the new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease induced </em><em>by</em><em> it (Coronavirus Disease or&nbsp;COVID-19) has been filling the pages of newspapers, television news and websites for days.&nbsp;It is a new virus, which until a few months ago probably lived only in bats, about which there is little scientific certainty about humans.&nbsp;The few evidences, however, are constantly updated and evolving.&nbsp;It is therefore not uncommon to come across information from unreliable sources and / or without any scientific basis. As far as possible, I will try to shed some light on the possible relationships between the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and&nbsp;the endocrinological system. This article, therefore, is the result of a completely personal research carried out in scientific journals, international scientific research sites and on the opinion of experts in the sector (expert opinions).&nbsp;It does not presume to be exhaustive, as the current certainties are very few and in any case must be interpreted dynamically since the scientific framework is constantly evolving. In essence, the information reported at the time of writing this article is based on what is currently known about the COVID-19 infection, but could be outdated in the coming months, based on the finding of new scientific evidence.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Effect, COVID 19, thyroid, gland, function</em></p> Hussein Adnan Mohammed Saleh Salman Omairi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 195 199 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4664 A Review of the Pharmacological Characteristics of Vanillic Acid https://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4823 <p>A dihydroxybenzoic acid analog used as a flavoring agent is vanillic acid (4hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid). It's a form of vanillin that has been oxidized. It's also a step in the process of making vanillin from Ferulic Acid. Vanillic acid has seen a lot of press because of its many uses in the cosmetics, fruit, flavorings, cigarettes,alcohols, drinks, and polymer sectors. It's said to have effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. The pharmacological impact on oxidative stress-induced neuro-degeneration, on the other hand, have not been thoroughly examined. The pharmacological properties of vanillic Acid lead to its possible use in the treatment of various diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Vanillic acid, Pharmacological Potential, wound healing, Antioxidants</p> Ashwini Ingole Megha P Kadam Aishwarya P. Dalu Shital M Kute Piyusha R Mange Vaishali D Theng Om R Lahane Aniket P Nikas Yash V Kawal Shatrughna U. Nagrik Prashant A. Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2-S 200 204 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-S.4823