Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</a>.&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Thu, 15 Feb 2024 02:24:20 -0600 OJS 60 Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, a potential herb in treatment of gout: A mini opinion and call for further research <p>Based on our knowledge, experience and field survey in the treatment of gout by complementary/alternative medicine and especially the herb therapy, properties of curing gout of <em>Orthosiphon stamineus</em> Benth are briefly commented and suggest that the future research to insightfully educidate this science opinion is necessary.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Orthosiphon stamineus, </em>gout, alternative medicine</p> Quang-Ung Le, Duc-Thuan Hoang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Management of Patients with Oral Lesions Associated Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) Nephritis: A Case Report <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease involving multi-organ such as mucocutaneous, musculoskeletal, and blood vessels with varied extraoral and intraoral clinical manifestations that require treatment from many medical specialists including dentists. The purpose of writing a case report is to describe how to manage oral lesions in patients with SLE Nephritis.</p> <p><strong>Case report</strong>: A female 17 years old patient was referred to the oral medicine department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital from the pediatrics department and was diagnosed with SLE nephritis due to complaints of ulcers on almost the entire oral mucosa. Extraoral examination revealed a moon face, malar rash, and erythematous rash on the palms of the hands. Intraoral examination revealed multiple ulcers, on labial mucosa, buccal mucosa, lateral right of the tongue, palate, and white plaque on the dorsum of the tongue. The therapy provided was non-pharmacological and pharmacological. Non-pharmacological therapies include oral hygiene instruction and communication, information, education.&nbsp; Pharmacological therapy is a solution containing sucralfate and prednisone which is gargled for one minute, then followed by nystatin oral suspension drug that discards after one minute, then followed by chlorhexidine digluconate 0,12% mouthwash, gargle for one minute, as an antiseptic (each drug is applied in 0,5 – 1 hours). The patient has received a systemic corticosteroid drug (methylprednisolone), but the treatment of oral lesions requires additional topical corticosteroids to accelerate the healing process because of its direct effect on the mucosa.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The management of oral lesions using topical corticosteroids in patients with SLE nephritis can help accelerate the healing process.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Management, Oral Lesions, SLE nephritis</p> Nanan Nur’aeny, Rahmi Harmiyati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin for Oncologic Pain <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The use of botulinum toxin for medical purposes has expanded nowadays through the extensive study of its complex structure and mechanism of action, highlighting its ability to inhibit the release of acetylcholine, and its impact on the chemical signaling cascade involved in different models of pain.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the association of the use of botulinum toxin A with the reduction of pain in oncologic patients at Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A retrospective, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was performed. Data were obtained from patients attended during the period from January 1, 2022 to September 30, 2023 in whom botulinum toxin was applied as an adjuvant for pain management.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Thirty-two patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. After the application of botulinum toxin there was a statistically significant reduction in pain, as measured by the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Verbal Rating Scale. The degree of satisfaction after the application of botulinum toxin was measured by a Likert-type scale, and 68% satisfaction was found in the patients who underwent the onotoxin treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The use of botulinum toxin proved to be an effective and safe therapy, complementary to the multimodal approach for the treatment of different pain patterns in oncologic patients. It can be considered as a pharmacological option for use in this group of patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Oncologic pain, Pain management, Botulinum toxin</p> Daniela Hernández-Rodríguez, María del Rocío Guillén-Núñez, Angel Manuel Juárez-Lemus, Ricardo Plancarte-Sánchez, Blanca Betsabé Aguilera-Elizalde, Oliver Humberto González-Vega ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 A Case Report on Iatrogenic Cushing Syndrome with Diabetes Mellitus <p>Cushing syndrome (CS) is a condition caused due to high levels of cortisol in which weight gain and fat tissue build-up take place. Generally, patients with Cushing syndrome also suffer from diabetes. A 57-year-old female patient with aggravated cortisol levels. Laboratory investigations of the patient were performed and they showed decreased haemoglobin levels, but increased vitamin B12 levels, and TSH levels. The patient was prescribed a combination of medications to manage anemia, anemia, and diabetes. The patient's medical history included splenomegaly, cholelithiasis, panniculitis, and kidney enlargement. The patient's diabetes was responding well to the treatment and was better after 10 days.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cushing syndrome, Diabetes mellitus, corticosteroid.</p> Aashutosh Sinwal, Aman Kushwaha, Gyan Ranjan, Ratana RAM, Kalpana Upadhayay, Mukesh Choudhary, Mudit Bhardwaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils of the aerial part of Acanthospermum hispidium D.C. 1836 collected in three towns in Ivory Coast <p>This research work concerns the comparative study of the chemical composition of essential oils from the aerial part of the <em>Acanthospermum hispidium</em> plant collected in three towns in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study is to enhance the value of aromatic and medicinal plants through the chemical analysis of essential oils (EO). The essential oils extracted using a Clevenger-type apparatus were analysed using several analytical methods, including Ir-GPC, MS-GPC and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR. The results indicate that the essential oils of <em>Acanthospermum hispidium </em>are largely dominated by hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (69.2 to 72.9%). The majority compounds identified are (E)-β-caryophyllene (33.3 to 34.9%), α-bisabolol (6.5 to 9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (6, 3 to 9.5%), germacrene D (7.3 to 8.4%), α-pinene (4.6 to 7.9%), β-lemene (3.7 to 4.3%) and α-copaene (2.5 to 3.2%). The co-presence of these compounds with multiple pharmacological properties could justify the use of <em>A. hispidium</em> in traditional medicine in the treatment of various pathologies.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>s<strong>: </strong>Acanthospermum hispidium, chemical composition, essential oil, Ivory Coast.</p> Adéyolé TIMOTOU, Logopho Hyacinthe OUATTARA, Didjour Albert KAMBIRE, Moussa SISSOUMA, Doumadé ZON, Ahmont Landry Claude KABLAN, Jean Brice BOTI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of Chrysopogon zizanioides Essential Oil: A Comprehensive Study on Its Chemical Composition, Thermal Analysis, and Biological Activities <p>Natural bioactive compounds sourced from plants and plant parts have become integral to drug discovery as natural products. The overreliance on synthetic drugs has adversely affected human health. This study focuses on the essential oil from <em>Chrysopogon zizanioides</em>, commonly known as "Vetiver" to explore its medicinal value. The oil underwent various analytical and biological assessments. Extraction involved hydro-distillation of the roots, and GC-MS analysis unveiled its composition. FAME analysis provided insights into fatty acid composition. Infrared spectroscopy identified different functional groups. Thermal stability was gauged using TG-DTA and DSC methods. The essential oil's antibacterial potency was tested against bacterial strains. Antimalarial and antituberculosis potential were evaluated against <em>Plasmodium falciparum </em>and<em> Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em>, respectively. Vetiver essential oil's ability to counter free radicals was determined via the DPPH reagent. Its impact on biofilm produced by 5 cultures was studied. The essential oil's effects on cancerous (HeLa) and normal (CHO) cell lines were assessed using the MTT assay. In conclusion, <em>Chrysopogon zizanioides</em> essential oil exhibits considerable potential with diverse activities. It could serve as a non-toxic alternative for infection prevention and find utility in the food industry</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> <em>Chrysopogon zizanioides</em>, Essential oil, Thermal Characterization, GCMS, Antimicrobial, Biofilm.</p> Vikas Jha, Arpita Marick, Agraj Bhargava, Kabir Thakur, Ashish Jhangiani, Leena Jagtap, Omkar Parulekar, Hricha Joshi, Devyani Pingale, Sakshi Chidrala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Risk factors for Undiagnosed Kidney Disease among Stable First-Degree Relatives of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem and has a major impact on health and cost of health care. In Nigeria, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is funded out of pockets by patients and their relatives unlike in most developed countries. There is a high clustering of the risk factors for CKD in FDRs of CKD patients, making then an ideal population for the screening for and the reversal of the modifiable risk factors that predispose to CKD.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study determined the risk factors for CKD in the FDRs of patients</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study involving 300 subjects: 150 FDRs of CKD patients and 150 control subjects without personal or family history of CKD. The study and control subjects were screened for CKD using urine albumin creatinine ratio (uACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Prevalence rate of the risk factors for CKD such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperuricaemia and life style practices like significant smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were determined for both the FDRs and the control subjects. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 21.0. Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparing the variables between the two study groups for continuous variables that were not normally distributed and Chi square tests for categorical variables.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence rate of dyslipidaemia and hyperuricaemia was significantly higher among the FDRs of CKD patients compared with the control subjects (26% versus 12%; P = 0.003) and (20.7% versus 7.3%; P = 0.001) respectively. The other risk factors for CKD that included hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, significant cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption and herbal medication use were equally more among the FDRs of CKD patients compared with the controls, although not statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The risk factors for CKD were common among FDRs of CKD patients. Screening for these risk factors at the earliest possible contact with the FDRs of CKD patients and taking appropriate actions to tackle the modifiable ones will prevent the development of CKD and retard the progression of the already existing disease, reduce the alarming global burden of CKD.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Bartholomew Chukwuka Ozuemba, Chidiebele Malachy Ezeude, Charles Uzoma Odenigbo, Chinwuba Ijoma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Phytochemicals properties and antimicrobial activities of Carica papaya and Balanites aegyptiaca’ seeds aqueous infusion and decoction extracts <p><em>Carica papaya</em> and <em>Balanites aegyptiaca</em> seeds extract have several uses, from food to traditional medicine. This study aims to determine their phytochemicals compound and appreciate their antimicrobial properties against clinical strains. Polyphenolic content was determined with standard methods while DPPH radical scavenging activity is used to appreciate the antioxidant properties, using ascorbic acid as standard. Antimicrobial activities were performed according to the inhibition diameters, using agar diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and Minimum fungicidal concentrations were established based on broth dilution methods. The extraction yield is ranged between 6.3 and 20.3%. The results shown polyphenolic content varying from 1256.13±21.09 to 2315.81±53.52 µg GAE/100 mL for <em>Carica papaya </em>and from 303.98±0.93 to 948.06±3.23 µg GAE/100 mL for <em>Balanites aegyptiaca </em>while the antioxidant activity is ranged between 31.76±2.35 and 58.47±4.24 µg AEAC/100 mL for <em>Carica papaya </em>and from 29.80±0.32 to 78.44±2.81 µg AEAC/100 mL for <em>Balanites aegyptiaca. </em>Infusion’s extracts always have the highest values of polyphenols content and antioxidant activity than decoction extracts, be it papaya or balanites seeds. Neitheir flavonoids content nor antibacterial activity was found. The inhibition diameter varies from 14.5±0.5 to 40.5±0.5 mm for papaya seeds extracts and from 16.5±0.5 to 21.0±0.5 mm for balanites seeds extracts without a significative effect of mixture for both extracts. MICs vary from 11.71±0.1 to 75.0±0.0 mg. mL<sup>-1</sup> for <em>Carica papaya</em> seeds extracts with 11.72±0.2 to 37.30±0.2 mg. mL<sup>-1</sup> and 18.74±0.1 to 100±0.0 mg.mL<sup>-</sup>1 for <em>Balanites aegyptiaca</em>. Mixture extracts presented intermediaire values. Decoction extracts have lowest MICs values and infusion reveals itself to be the sweetable aqueous extraction techniques but the appropriate infusion time need to be highlight.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Carica papaya, Balanites aegyptiaca</em>, Seeds extracts, Phytochemical, antifungal</p> Assétou OUEDRAOGO, Philippe Augustin NIKIEMA, Marguerite Edith Malatala NIKIEMA, Josias Gérard YAMEOGO, Bernadette Pane SOURABIE, Belinda Ramata Hafouo BASSAVE, Oueogo NIKIEMA, Florent Wendinmi Bertrand GOUMBRI, Nicolas BARRO ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Evaluation of Therapeutic Response Under Biologic Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis <p>Biotherapy has revolutionized the therapeutic management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerance of biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs ( cDMARDs) used in RA.</p> <p>It was a retrospective study covering 13 years at the level of the immunology unit of the UHU Hassiba Ben Bouali Blida and functional rehabilitation service of the CHU Frantz Fanon Blida. We identified 1866 records of patients with RA, 75 receiving biotherapy and 71 receiving conventional treatment. The therapeutic response was evaluated by the DAS 28-ESR (disease activity score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and interpreted according to the EULAR (European league against rheumatism) judgements criteria.</p> <p>A female predominance of 83%, the average age of RA patients was 49.3 ±13.42 years, the mean starting DAS28-ESR was 5.625± 1.4. 84% of patients initially received MTX (methotrexate) on the front line, the decrease in DAS28-ESR was non- significant, with patients exhibiting intolerance (41%), and (45%) ineffectiveness. The introduction of biotherapy mainly Actemra allowed a decrease of DAS28-ESR of - 1.842±0.3812, a significant decrease according to the criteria of the EULAR. Humira had an adverse efficacy and tolerance profile (including the occurrence of severe adverse effects (AEs)).</p> <p>In conclusion, biotherapy is more effective than conventional treatments, while in terms of tolerance data are insufficient to make a judgment on it.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Rheumatoid arthritis – Biotherapy. </p> Badia Djebbar, Mohamed Lotfi BOUDJELLA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Formulating and evaluating a gel that contains Eletriptan-loaded transferosomes <p>Transdermal-vesicular drug delivery systems offer various advantages over conventional drug delivery systems, such as bypassing first-pass metabolism, site-specific delivery, reduced dosing frequency, and more. The objective of the present research involves the formulation and in-vitro evaluation of Eletriptan transferosomal gel to reduce dosing frequency. Transferosomes act as vehicles for on-site drug delivery, and they are vesicular systems with a flexible membrane. By formulating this type, we can achieve a higher concentration at the site of action, thereby reducing dosing frequency.</p> <p>Fourier-transform infrared spectra revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. Transferosomal formulations were prepared by the thin-film hydration technique and were incorporated into 1.5% Carbopol gel. From the results, Formulation code-ET6, containing Lecithin: Tween-80, has higher entrapment efficiency and maximum drug release, and is hence considered the optimized formulation. Stability studies performed for optimized transferosomal gel formulations indicate that the prepared transferosomal gel has more stability at a lower temperature.</p> <p>The conclusion is that, based on the above data, it is confirmed that the prepared Eletriptan transferosomal gels can be considered as one of the promising approaches to reducing dosing frequency and maintaining drug concentration at the desired site for a longer time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Transdermal drug delivery, Eletriptan, Transferosomes, Thin Film Hydration Method, Carbopol gel.</p> Mobina Begum, Abdul Rawoof, D Jasmine, Sana Fatima ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of Praecitrullus fistulosus fruits <p>Diabetes mellitus [antihyperglycemic] is the endocrine metabolic disorder characterized by raised glucose level in the sanguine liquid of body i.e. blood serum due to disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism. In Diabetes mellitus extent of glucose is maintained by well know endocrine pancreatic secreted hormone fuel called insulin which help in metabolizing the glucose level by muscular utilization and other organ pathological activity. When the levels of insulin fall below the body desire it can to hyperglycemic condition. Antihyperglycemic therapeutic plant has an ability to restore abnormal pancreatic condition by increase of insulin, enhancement of body carbohydrate utilization. There are more than 400 reported plant species used an antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic. <em>Praecitrullus fistulosus </em>is reported to contain polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, tannin, alkaloid, saponin, phytosterol, diterpines, thiamin, and carotene that possess antidiabetic, antioxidative and anthelmintic activity. On investigation and understanding the cause of diabetes mellitus, had opened the large view for the treatment. Phytomedicine has considerably taken the prominent position for the treatment of many metabolic disorders. Biochemical studies concluded that <em>Praecitrullus fistulosus</em> &nbsp;extract shows alteration in blood glucose level and also <em>Praecitrullus fistulosus</em> improved the lipid profile and showed positive aspect on different parameter in diabetic control rats and it was noted that<em> Praecitrullus fistulosus </em>drug extract was effective and helped in controlling the BG level in Albino Wistar Rat <em>Praecitrullus fistulosus</em> is reported to contain polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, tannin, alkaloid, saponin, Phytosterol, diterpines, thiamin, and carotene that possess antidiabetic, antioxidative properties. The aim of research is to evaluate and investigate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of <em>Praecitrullus fistulosus </em>fruit extract on Streptozotocin (STZ)-Nicotinamide induced diabetic rat.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: &nbsp;Antihyperglycemic, <em>Praecitrullus fistulosus, </em>Phytochemicals, Phytomedicine</p> Shivani Singh Senger, Anjali Singh, Megha Jha, Deepak Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Recurrence of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Associated Risk Factors: A 3-Year Retrospective Study <p>The burden of diabetes foot ulcer is immense, resulting to prolonged hospital stay and high cost of care. The aim of this study is to identify the predictors of ulcer recurrence which will help mitigate this disabling, pocket-draining, but highly preventable complication of diabetes mellitus (DM).</p> <p>Methodology: This was a 3-year retrospective study of patients hospitalised for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in Enugu State University Teaching Hospital from March 2020 to February 2023. Information on demographics, relevant diabetes history and complications, characteristics of DFU, outcome, DFU recurrence were obtained.</p> <p>Results: Most of the patients (82.5%) were between 41 and 70 years of age with a mean age is 57.86 ± 12.45. There were marginally more females (52.6%) than male (47.4%). The subjects were predominantly businessmen/traders (43.9%), and 73.7% had DM duration of 1-5 years. Duration of admission was 8 weeks for 31.6% of the patients, 4 weeks for 26.3%, 3 weeks for 21.1% and 12 weeks for 12.3% of the patients. More of the patients were in Wagner grades 3 (43.9%) and 4 (31.6%). The Prevalence of (diabetic peripheral neuropathy) DPN, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and Retinopathy among the patients were 82.5%, 45.6% and 59.6% respectively. Recurrence of DFU occurred in 35% of the subjects. Occupation and wound site positively correlated with reocurrence in this study. The outcome shows that 59.6% of the patients had good healing, 21.1% had ray amputation while 14% had below knee amputation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetic foot ulcer, recurrence, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral artery disease.</p> Maryann Kanayo Oham, Michael Chinweuba Abonyi, Theophilus Ejiofor Ugwu, Chidiebele Malachy Ezeude, Uzoma Chukwunonso Okechukwu, Fintan Chinweike Ekochin, John Aniebo Maluze, Obiageli Ugwuaku, Ifeoma Mercy Ahanonu, Nkemdilim Justina Ugwu, Nnenna Nkemjika Okorie ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Prevalence of Thyroid Disorders and Reference Range of Thyroid Hormones among Pregnant Women in Bosaso City, Somalia <p><strong>Background:</strong> Thyroid dysfunctions are among the most prevalent of medical conditions, and considered the most prevalent disorders in women during pregnancy, and can adversely affect obstetric outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid disorders among pregnant women in Bosaso city, Somalia, and to initiate normal levels of thyroid related hormones</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: This study was cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at University of Health Science Hospital (Prof Abdirisak Hospital), Bosaso city, Somalia during the period of August 2023 to December 2023. a total of 250 pregnant women were included in the study. A&nbsp;total of&nbsp;five&nbsp;ml&nbsp;of&nbsp;whole&nbsp;blood&nbsp;was&nbsp;collected&nbsp;from each&nbsp;participant into sterile plain&nbsp;containers&nbsp;for&nbsp;thyroid hormones estimation. Estimation of thyroid hormones was done by using CLIA technique (Maglumi 800). The data was gathered using per-designed structural questionnaire and the SPSS 26.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., USA) was used for statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The overall prevalence of thyroid disorders were 33 (13.2%), 8% of them were hyperthyroidism and the rest 5.2% were hypothyroidism. The reference range for TSH, T3 and T4 were (0.07 mlU/L–4.14 mlU/L), (0.19 nmol/L–4.98 nmol/L), and (0.21 nmol/L–3.69 nmol/L) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concluded that there is a slightly higher frequency of thyroid dysfunction disorders among pregnant women.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Thyroid function test, Thyroid dysfunction, T3, T4, TSH, Pregnant women</p> Ali Bile Farah Hassan, Mohamed Hassan Osman Ebar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Optimization of extraction and lyophilization conditions of Feretia apodanthera (Rubiaceae) leaf powders for galenic formulation <p><em>Feretia apodanthera</em> (Rubiaceae) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various pathologies. Its leaves are chewed and swallowed to treat stomach aches, sleep disorders, etc. With the aim of improving the extraction method in order to obtain high contents of phytochemical compounds and good antioxidant activity, this study aimed to highlight the extraction and lyophilization conditions of two extracts (aqueous and hydro-ethanolic) leaves of <em>Feretia apodanthera.</em></p> <p>An aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extraction was carried out from the leaf powder of <em>Feretia apodanthera</em>, after a maceration plan (mass/volume ratio and extraction time). The extracts obtained were freeze-dried (flask size, filling volume and freeze-drying time) in order to determine the optimal extraction conditions. A phytochemical screening of the extracts with extreme yields of different solvents was carried out by TLC, which led to the determination of certains compounds of interest and the evaluation of the antioxidant activity by the DPPH and FRAP method.</p> <p>The optimal maceration conditions were 02 hours and m/V ratio of 1/20 for the aqueous extract and those of the ethanolic extract were 30 min and m/V ratio of 1/20. The optimal freeze-drying conditions were 60h and a 500ml flask 1/3 filled. The presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponosides, coumarins, triterpenes and sterols has been highlighted. The phenolics compounds contents of hydro-ethanolic lyophilisates were higher than those of aqueous lyophilisates. There was no statistical difference between the antioxidant activity of the different extracts.</p> <p>The optimal conditions will serve as a standard for the production of the extract necessary for the formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong> : <em>Feretia apodanthera</em>, extraction, freeze-drying, phenolics compounds, antioxidant.</p> Salfo Ouédraogo, Tata Kadiatou TRAORE, Taofick Ishola, Benjamin Ouédraogo, Abdoul Laurent Gilchrist Boly, Gniènèfèrètien Nounaféri Awa Silué, Françis Ngolsou, Rasmané Semdé ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 New Enriched Culture Media for Culturing Streptococcus pyogenes by using Spirulina Powder <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Fastidious bacteria require special nutrients and growth factors to grow on enriched culture media. Many enriched culture media were developed for culturing and isolating fastidious bacteria in pure cultures. The present study investigates the ability of spirulina powder to support the fastidious bacteria growth in pure culture compared to ordinary enriched media, e.g., Blood agar and Chocolate agar.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Spirulina powder was used as a nutrient source with some additives to prepare different types of Spirulina media. Reference strain ATCC (19615) and three clinical isolates of <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em> were examined for their growth on the developed candidate medium. Three formulations of spirulina powder were used: Medium 1, Medium 2, and Medium 3.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All spirulina media supported the growth of <em>streptococcus pyogenes</em> and there was no significant difference in the morphology and cultural characteristics on the blood agar and chocolate agar media. Colonies size of <em>streptococcus pyogenes</em> were slightly smaller size on spirulina media.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Spirulina media is a possible candidate that can be used as enriched culture media for culturing and isolating fastidious bacteria such as <em>Streptococcus</em> <em>pyogenes</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Spirulina powder, enriched culture media, <em>Streptococcus</em> <em>pyogenes</em>.</p> Ahmed Mohammed Abdelazim, Abdelrahman Eldaw Mohammed, Omer Hassan Arabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Comprehensive Investigation of Juniperus virginiana Essential Oil: GC/MS Analysis, Thermoanalytical Characterization, and Evaluation of Bioactive Potential <p>Due to the ever-increasing unregulated antibiotic use, there have been increased risks of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Natural agents, their products, and derivatives have been used for centuries to cure a variety of ailments. In the present study, an attempt was made to explore the physiochemical properties of the CEO. GC-MS analysis was used to identify the volatile components present in the oil. Additionally, TGA and DSC analysis were carried out to understand the thermal properties of the oil.&nbsp; The oil was characterized by higher amounts of terpenoids. The essential oil has potent anticancer, cytotoxic, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory activity. This study concludes that the <em>Juniperus virginiana </em>essential oil could be used as a therapeutic agent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Anticancer, Antioxidant, Cedarwood, Cytotoxicity, Essential oil</p> Vikas Jha, Prakruti Kapadia, Anjali Bhosale, Simeen Rumani, Reetikesh Patel, Arpita Marick, Anjali Mange, Kavita Nalawade, Habil Hirkani, Simran Gohil, Ira Kode ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Histochemical Investigation of Exotic Weed Lantana camara Linn <p>The histochemical Studies of leaves, Root and Stem of <em>Lantena camara Linn</em>.(Verbenaceae) in Maharashtra. It is a annual shrub grown widely in different places of India. The species has been investigated for the phytochemical, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial Potential. This paper encompasses a comprehensive review on histochemical and Biological aspects of <em>Lantena camara L.</em> For histochemical studies the freehand sections of leaves, stem and root were taken and treated with respective reagent in localize component, viz. Starch, protein, tannin, saponin, fat, and alkaloids in the tissues.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Histochemistry, <em>Lantena</em>, Alkaloids, Protein</p> A. M. Adsare, K. M. Khalkar, Saurav Somnath Gaikwad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Effects of Intravenous Lidocaine as an Analgesic Adjuvant in Oncological Pain <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To verify that intravenous lidocaine is effective as an adjuvant analgesic in pain for hospitalized cancer patients at the National Institute of Cancerology, Mexico. <strong>Methods:</strong> Clinical records of patients hospitalized at the National Institute of Cancerology who received intravenous lidocaine infusion as an adjuvant to pain during the 4-year period from November 1, 2019, to October 31, 2023, were reviewed. Patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. A statistically significant measure was defined as a decrease equal to or greater than 4 points in the NRS value after lidocaine administration.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 179 patients were included; 46.4% were men, and 53.6% were women. The most common painful syndrome was somatic (54%). Patients with neuropathic pain received a higher lidocaine dose (mg/kg/hr) of 1.9 ± 0.79. Regarding adverse effects, 1.7% of patients experienced them. It was established that a reduction of 4 points with respect to the previous value on the numeric rating scale (NRS) would be considered statistically significant. A statistically significant association was found between patients under 38 years old and a higher risk of not achieving the objective (p 0.05, CI 0.95–1 OR 0.9). Patients who received lidocaine infusions for less than 4.63 days also had a risk of not reaching the goal (p 0.02, CI 0.7–0.9, OR 0.8).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study demonstrated that the analgesic adjuvant use of intravenous lidocaine infusion is an effective and well-tolerated analgesic intervention for oncology patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>lidocaine<strong>, </strong>Neuropathic Pain, Somatic Pain, Visceral Pain, numeric rating scale. </p> Viviana Andrea Villar-Herrera, María del Rocío Guillén-Núñez, Lizeth Castillo-Ramirez, Gian Marco Gutierrea-Herrera ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Ethyl acetate extract of breadfruit leaves (Artocarvus altilis) improves lipid profile and reduces F2-isoprostane in dyslipidemia-induced Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) <p>Dyslipidemia is closely related to the process of lipid peroxidation. In the non-enzymatic peroxidation process of arachidonic acid, an esterification process occurs and produces a metabolite in the form of isoprostane. The most common isoprostane found is F2-isoprostane. In traditional medicine, breadfruit leaves (<em>Artocarvus altilis</em>) have been widely used due to their antioxidant compounds, such as flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, and other secondary metabolites. This study aims to evaluate the activity of breadfruit leaf ethyl acetate extract in improving the lipid profile and F2-isoprostane in dyslipidemia-induced Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). This study was an experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group design with two treatment groups: fenofibrate 1.65 mg (P1) and breadfruit leaf ethyl acetate extract (760 mg) (P2) for 28 days. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, and F2-isoprostane levels were measured before and after treatment expressed in mg/dL. The data were analyzed using a parametric t-paired and t-unpaired test with a 95% confidence level. The study found that breadfruit leaf extract was better than fenofibrate at lowering total cholesterol (pre 172.41 ± 4.93; post 101.24 ± 2.09), triglycerides (pre 172.41 ± 4.93; post 101.24 ± 2.09), LDL (pre 95.78 ± 8.00; post 12.03 ± 10.06), F2-Isoprostane (pre 924.86±10.40; post 432.99±14.17), and raising HDL (pre 102.29 ± 10.40; post 143.89 ± 5.99). In conclusion, ethyl acetate extract is better than fenofibrate in improving lipid profiles and reducing F2-isoprostane in dyslipidemia-induced animal tests.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>breadfruit leaves (<em>Artocarvus altilis</em>), dyslipidemia, F2-Isoprostane, fenofibrate, lipid profile, total cholesterol</p> Shinta Eka Kusuma Dewi, Anak Agung Gde Putra Wiraguna, Gde Ngurah Indraguna Pinatih ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and Evaluation of Pulsatile drug delivery of Albuterol sulphate and Theophylline drugs using modified Pulsincap technology <p>Albuterol Sulphate and Theophylline are used as anti-asthma agents. The objective of the present investigation was to design develop and evaluate a modified pulsincap drug delivery system of Albuterol Sulphate and Theophylline for the treatment of Asthma. The body of capsule was made insoluble with water by cross linking with formaldehyde. This modified capsule was completely filled with drug with polymer such as HPMCK15M, HPMC K 100M, PVPK-30 to expel the drug after predetermined lag time. A hydrogel plug was inserted in the body of a capsule to obtain desired drug release after a lag time for chronotherapy of asthma. Untreated capsule was attached to the treated body and was released. The drug was exerted to precompression parameter such as Angle of repose, Bulk density, Tapped density, Car’s index Hassner’s ratio. These capsules were subjected to further post formulation studies such as weight variation, drug content, invitro dissolution studies separately. The pre and post formulation parameters were found to be within permissible limit. The mere compatibility of drug, polymer and excipients were determined by Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV). The results showed that drug was completely compatible with polymer and excipients. In vitro dissolution were carried out by using pH 6 .8 and pH 7.4 buffers. Based on the result obtained F5 Formulation shows good dissolution profile. Higuchi, Hixson crowell. Koresmeyer peppas to evaluate the kinetics and drug release. The drug release follows first order kinetics and the mechanism was found to be NON FICKS DIFFUSION.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Albuterol Sulphate, Theophylline, modified pulsincap drug delivery system, FTIR, Dissolution </p> Govinda Reddy G., Rakesh Kumar Jat, K M Manjanna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Design, Evaluation and Optimization of Albuterol Sulphate and Theophylline Pulsincap drug delivery system for chronotherapy of Asthma <p>The aim of the current study was to design and develop and evaluate pulsatile drug delivery system of Albuterol Sulphate and Theophylline for the treatment of Asthma. The capsule body was made water insoluble by cross linked with formaldehyde vaopur. The treatment of Formalin was adopted to modify the gelatin capsule solubility. The formalin residue was carried out by quantitative test. The drug-excipient compatibility is done by FTIR and UV . The pulsincap formulation were prepared by using hydrogel plug of various components. The drug content of the formulation of pulsincap was found to be in the general range. The invitro drug release studies in ph1.2 .6.2 and 7.4 buffern was noticed to be zero percent and capsule was stable for 2 hours drug the studyF5 formulation batch was selected which was best and good formulation and promoted maximum drug release of&nbsp; 96.29% &nbsp;&nbsp;percentage at&nbsp; phosphate buffers when compared with other formulation. Pulsincap formulation can be adopted for optimum delivery of pellets in the treatment as per chronotherapy</p> <p>Keywords:&nbsp; Theophylline, quantitative test, invitro drug release studies, phosphate buffers6.2 and 7.4.</p> Govinda Reddy G., Rakesh Kumar Jat, K M Manjanna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Stability Study of a Formulation Based on Pineapple Juice and Hibiscus sabdariffa Concentrated Extract for the Preparation of Food Supplements <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives on the stability of a beverage based on pineapple juice and <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> concentrated extract at room temperature. This beverage was intended to be used to formulate food supplements. Acidifier (citric acid), antioxidant (ascorbic acid) and antimicrobial (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) were added alone or in combination. Organoleptic, physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity and Brix degree) and microbiological characteristics were observed over a 21-day period. Beverages containing potassium sorbate (1 g/L) and sodium benzoate (0.5 g/L) were more stable over 21 days.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: dietary supplements, storage, bissap, extract</p> Kakwokpo Clémence N’GUESSAN-GNAMAN, Nakognon Awa TUO-KOUASSI, Sandrine AKA-ANY-GRAH, Apo Laurette ANIN, Ismael DALLY ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Anti-hyperglycemic effect of two terpenoids isolated from Coula edulis on normoglycemic rats and in silico study of their potential inhibitors on α-amylase and dipeptidylpeptidase 4 <p>Diabetes causes many deaths around the world, making the search for treatments a real challenge. Plant secondary metabolites are promising candidates because they act as scaffolds in biological processes. This study investigates anti-hyperglycaemic effect of two terpenoids isolated from <em>Coula edulis</em> and <em>in silico</em> study of their potential inhibitors on α-amylase and dipeptidypeptidase 4. After extraction and isolation of the two terpenoids, their structures were characterized using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. Subsequently the anti-hyperglycemic effect was achieved following an overload of starch on the one hand and glucose on the other hand in normoglycemic rats. Each isolated terpenoids was tested at a dose of 3 mg/, the same for the reference compounds (Acarbose and glibenclamide). Conformational site analysis and docking parameters such as binding energy, inhibition constant, interaction profiles with diabetes target residues (α-amylase and dipeptidypeptidase 4) were determined using AutoDock 4.2 and Discovery Studio visualizer<em>. </em>The results showed that the terpenoids isolated from <em>coula edulis</em> were Taraxerol and 3<em>β-(Z)</em>-coumaroyltaraxerol, each of its two terpenoids considerably decreased the blood sugar levels in rats after overloading of starch and glucose solutions respectively. Their effects were similar to the reference drugs. Furthermore, the <em>in-silico</em> approach showed that these compounds have good docking scores with α-amylase and with DPP4. Taraxerol exhibited a docking score more than three times than the acarbose docking score. Only 3<em>β-(Z)</em>-coumaroyltaraxerol reacts with at least one amino acid of the α-amylase catalytic triad (Asp 300). Both interact with histidine (His 740) of the DPP4 catalytic triad. In view of this results, taraxerol and 3<em>β-(Z)</em>-coumaroyltaraxerol have anti-hyperglycemic effects and are good candidates for the development of new multitarget antidiabetics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Coula edulis</em>, RMN 1D and 2D, tarxerol, 3<em>β-(Z)</em>-coumaroyltaraxerol and Anti-hyperglycemia </p> Manuela Guaelle Kepawou, Bruno Dupon Ambamba Akamba, Michael Hermann Kengne Kamdem, Cicilien Quentin Nongni Piebeng, Valery Wilfried Nguemdjo Chimeze, Ferdinand Lanvin Edoun Ebouel, Edwin Mpho Mmutlane, Derek Tantoh Ndinteh, Céline Djama Mbazoa, Judith Laure Ngondi, Jean Wandji ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Effectiveness of subcutaneous morphine in the treatment of pain crises in cancer patients <p>Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous morphine for managing pain crises resulting from various causes in cancer patients attended by the Pain Clinic in the immediate care area of the National Cancer Institute in Mexico City.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: This study was analytical, observational, retrospective, and descriptive. The oncology patients treated in the immediate care area for pain crises between August 1, 2020, and July 1, 2023, made up our study population. We documented the management of pain crises for patients who needed subcutaneous morphine treatment.</p> <p>Results: Considering a reduction in Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score &gt;30% as effective and a reduction &lt;30% as ineffective, 566 patients didn’t require an additional dose of subcutaneous morphine to control the pain crisis; 11 patients reported a decrease of &lt;30%. A total of 24 patients needed a second rescue. Among this group, only 5 responded well to the second morphine rescue; in the remaining 19 patients, the rescue was deemed ineffective if the NRS decreased by at least 30%. Only 5 individuals experienced moderate pain, and only one patient reported severe pain. The variables were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test with significance &lt;0.05. Consequently, it may be said that there is a statistically significant difference between the first and subsequent NRS values obtained.</p> <p>Conclusion: For oncology patients treated by the Pain Clinic in the immediate care section of the National Cancer Institute in Mexico City, subcutaneous morphine is beneficial in managing pain crises of different origins.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Morphine, Subcutaneous Pain crises, Efficacy, Numeric rating scale </p> Blanca Betsabe Aguilera-Elizalde, María del Rocío Guillén-Núñez, Angel Manuel Juárez-Lemus, Ricardo Plancarte-Sánchez, Daniela Hernández-Rodríguez, Oliver Humberto González-Vega ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Development and Characterization of Thermoreversible In-situ Gel Containing Curcumin Nanoparticles for Nasal Delivery: Design, Ex-Vivo Study <p>The present study aimed to develop and evaluate thermoreversible in situ nasal gel containing Curcumin nanoparticles. Curcumin nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method. These formulations were evaluated for entrapment efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, and <em>In vitro</em> drug release. Particle size and zeta potential of F1 formulation were found to be 299 nm, 0.1 mV, and entrapment efficiency was found to be87.2%. From the formulations, F1 shows maximum amount of drug released in a sustained manner for a prolonged period time. Hence F1formulation was selected as optimized and further used for thermoreversible in situ nasal gel by using 2×2 factorial designs. The thermoreversible nasal gel was evaluated for the gelation temperature (33˚C), viscosity (10550cps) and spreadability (17.29±0.3 gm*cm/sec). Further, the prepared gel (F1G3) was evaluated for <em>ex vivo</em> permeation study for12 hours and it shows maximum amount of drug release in a controlled manner. The % CDR of thermoreversible in situ gel formulation F1G3 was found to be 86.27% which follow the Higuchi model. The 'n' value of the formulation was found to be more than 0.5. This indicate that the release approximates the non-fickain diffusion mechanism.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Curcumin nanoparticles, Carbopol 934, PF127, Thermoreversible in situ gel, Cold method, Nasal delivery.</p> G. T. Mamatha, Rakesh Kumar Jat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Gallic Acid and Doxorubicin Treatment HeLa cell lines by MTT assay <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Cervical cancer, as it is medically known, occurs in the cells in the lower part of the uterus called the cervix and is one of the most common gynecological cancers in the world. Hormonal and genetic factors play a major role in the development of endometrial cancer. Chemotherapeutic drugs are very effective in treatment. However, serious side effects and the development of drug resistance limit the use of these drugs. In our study, the cytotoxic effects of Gallic acid (GA), which is found in many popular foods, on HeLa cells were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In our study, different doses of GA and Dox were applied to the cells for 48 hours and cytotoxicity levels were determined by the MTT method. All results were analyzed statistically.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was observed that cytotoxicity by MTT was at the highest level in the GA and Dox administered group. IC50 was determined and it was found that GA IC50 was 239.2 and Dox IC50 was 137.6.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As a result of the study, it was shown that the highest cytotoxic effect occurred with GA application and this may support Dox application with a synergistic effect.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Servics cancer, Gallic acid, Doxorubicin, MTT</p> Serap Mutlu Özçelik Otçu, Murat Akkuş ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Exploring the Therapeutic Potential: Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Bryophyllum pinnatum <p><em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em>, a renowned medicinal plant with a rich history in various traditional medical practices, has been utilized for treating a range of ailments such as fever, smallpox, otitis, cough, asthma, headache, convulsion, and general debility. The plant's diverse secondary metabolites, including steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, fatty acids, bufadienolides, proteins, peptides, vitamins, and polysaccharides, have been identified. Over the past thirty years, extensive research has unveiled the plant's pharmacological effects both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating its antimicrobial, anti-ulcer, antihypertensive, antileishmanial, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and immunomodulatory properties.</p> <p>This comprehensive review aims to provide a consolidated overview of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em>, encompassing its traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological studies. By presenting a wealth of information, this paper seeks to inspire further exploration into the potential beneficial applications of the plant. Additionally, it sheds light on the clinical uses and prospects of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em>, offering valuable insights for future research endeavors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum, </em>Chemical Constituent, Biological activities, antioxidant effect, Therapeutic potential</p> Saurabh Dhumane, Tejas Naik, Mahesh Shelke, Kiran Dukare, Krushna Dhongade ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 DNA tetrahedron as nanoparticulated delivery system in combating diseases <p>Many diseases suffer from drug resistance and nucleic acid cargo delivery. To optimize pharmaceutics and to enhance their efficiency of cellular uptake, DNA nanomaterial tetrahedrons, owing to their precise control in size, shape, excellent biocompatibility and cellular permeability, reduced cytotoxicity, good stability, ease synthesis and multiple sites for targeting design, have attracted attention for targeting cargos delivery. Their nanostructural binding efficiency with many cargos depends on their electrostatic attractions among free electrons of phosphate oxygen, sugar and base nitrogen. Self-assembled DNA tetrahedrons (DTs) alone also can regulate cellular processes to some extent, especially, on migration, differentiation, proliferation and autophagy, and their modifications with the attachment of aptamers, peptides, nucleic acids, antibodies, different low-molecular-weight drugs and other components, make them a novel targeted delivery system as effective nanomedicine. This review demonstrates the current progress of DTs towards their synthesis, characterization, biomedical applications, biodistribution, elimination and toxicity as possible nanoparticulated delivery system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diseases; Drug resistance; DNA tetrahedron; nanoparticulated delivery system; Nanomedicine</p> Ardhendu Kumar Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Experimental Animal Models for Influenza/Flu Virus Vaccine Development <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objective of this review is to explore the different animal models used in the development of Influenza / Flu Virus Vaccine as well as some important guidelines adhered to it.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Laboratory animal models are widely used in the preclinical evaluation of potential vaccines and antiviral compounds to investigate the safety and efficacy of the vaccine or compound in preventing or moderating infection, disease, or secondary transmission. Animal models must also represent humans in terms of similarity of clinical signs, histopathological changes, virus growth kinetics, or transmission. Common animal models for influenza virus vaccine testing include mice, ferrets, and non-human primates. These models help researchers assess vaccine efficacy, immune response, and potential side effects before advancing to human trials. Animal models play a crucial role in the development and testing of influenza vaccines, as they help researchers examine potential side effects and adverse reactions, evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, study the immune response elicited by vaccines, understand the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection, and predict the potential impact of emerging strains. They also help test various vaccine platforms and delivery methods, and compare the effectiveness of different vaccine formulations in animals to identify promising candidates for further human trials.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We have discussed in detail the various animal models such as Chick embryo model for the development of influenza virus vaccine and mice, ferrets, guinea pig and non-human primates etc. used for the evaluation of safety and therapeutic effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>As we have discussed various animal models, their merits, demerits etc. for the evaluation of safety and effectiveness of influenza virus vaccine and expect that these will help for the young researchers to carry out their vaccine research using suitable animal models.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> influenza virus, vaccine development, mouse models, ferret model, guinea pig model, cotton rat model</p> Ayushi Gupta, Trilochan Satapathy, Bharti Pradhan, Kalpana Sen, Shailesh Sahu, Akhilesh Kumar Sahu, Shiv Kumar Bhardwaj, Md. Altaf Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Pharmacological Targeting of Ferroptosis in Cancer Treatment <p>A non-apoptotic iron-dependent form of Regulated Cell Death (RCD) known as ferroptosis is brought on by an excess of harmful lipid peroxides and iron overload. Inhibiting the antioxidant defense system results in overwhelming of GSH dependent pathway and building up iron-dependent Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that react with polyunsaturated fatty acids in large quantities can both cause ferroptosis. Recent research has shown that ferroptosis holds a great deal of promise for preventing tumor cell resistance and limiting growth and spread. Emerging evidence also suggests that ferroptosis plays a dual role in human cancer. However, the precise underlying molecular mechanisms and their different role in tumorigenesis are unclear. Therefore, in this review we summarize and briefly present the key pathways of ferroptosis, its dual role as an oncogenic and as a tumor suppressor event in human cancers, paying special attention to the regulation of ferroptosis along with a variety of current medications and naturally occurring substances that may one day be used to target ferroptosis in tumor cells. Thus, addressing this sort of cell death could be seen as a potentially expanding technique in cancer treatment. Consequently, this will offer crucial viewpoints for next research on ferroptosis-based cancer treatment.</p> <p>Keywords: Ferroptosis, antioxidant defense system, Cancer</p> Mohammad Altaf Khan, Trilochan Satapathy, Kalpana Sen, Shailesh Sahu, Bharti Pradhan, Ayushi Gupta, Abinash Satapathy, Ansuman Satapathy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Solid dispersion: application and limitations <p>Solubility and dissolution rate are essential factors in the bioavailability of a drug. The drug must be well-soluble in water to have good bioavailability. Solid dispersion is among the most widely used and effective methods for increasing solubility and releasing inadequately water-soluble medications. Solid dispersion requires the choice of a suitable carrier for the right active pharmaceutical ingredients and the proper techniques for preparing solid dispersions. The reliable dispersion system is designed in various ways to achieve the goal and avoid the accompanying obstacles.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> solid dispersion, solubility, solvent evaporation, lyophilization, generation, methods</p> Ebtissam Ameer Mohammed, Mohanad Alfahad, Mohannad E Qazzaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Contrasting Evidences Between High Cholesterol Levels and The Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Review <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The cholesterol hypothesis had been kept alive for decades by reviewers who used statistics that excluded the results from unsuccessful trials and ignored numerous contradictory observations. High dietary cholesterol intake had been associated with development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality, for over several decades, without a direct link between the CVD and high serum cholesterol level. Hence, people avoided healthy cholesterol-rich diets due to the fear of developing CVD. The relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol and CVD and criteria for appropriate methods for screening patients with elevated cholesterol had remained a source of medical debates. Lack of decrease in overall mortality rates in patients without clinical coronary disease in whom aggressive lowering of cholesterol was achieved might have contributed to the lack of consensus on this most important issue.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>With information derived from search engines, such as Elsevier, Springer, PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Google Scholar and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Several research results showed that association between total serum cholesterol, its components and CVD is weak, absent or inverse implying that consuming healthy high cholesterol diets may not be harmful to health.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This review provides evidence contrasting the links between elevated plasma cholesterol and CVD, and demonstrated that elevated cholesterol concentrations, rather, improve quality of life and life expectancy. In addition, most prevalent methods for cholesterol quantification in biological samples and foods, utilizing new technologies, such as Ambient Ionization&nbsp;Mass Spectrometry are summarized, along with other components of cholesterol.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cholesterol, CVD, Quantification</p> Ahmadu Saleh, King Akpofure Nelson Esievo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 A Pharmacognostic, phytochemical and pharmacological review of Pterocarpus marsupium: Comprehensive Review <p>Research in herbal drug is need of the hour to find definite lead for discovery of medicine from plant source. Many traditional medicinal plants are under screening to scientifically reinforce their traditional claims. <em>Pterocarpus marsupium </em>is time tested important source of herbal medicine which has been used extensively for treatment of diabetes mellitus. It has also exhibited antimicrobial activity, analgesic activity, anticataract activity. Acute toxicity test determines safe dose of the <em>Pterocarpus marsupium</em>. Various extraction methods such as Infusion, Decoction, Maceration, Percolation and Hot Water Extraction s employed for efficient extraction of phytoconstituents. Primary phytoconstituents present in the bark comprises of liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, pterosupin, epicatechin, and pterostilbene. Current review is carried out to study pharmacognstic, phytochemical and pharmacological activity of the drug, which can be useful for researcher to provide synoptic overview about <em>Pterocarpus marsupium</em> &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Pterocarpus marsupium, Review, Fabaceae, Indian kino, Asan</em></p> Mangirish Narendra Deshpande, Pearl Dighe, Sujit Nagare ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Stem-cells Research and Therapies <p>Studies with leucogenenol, a compound isolated from the metabolic products of Penicillium gilmanii and human liver showed that leucogenenol accelerated the rate at which the “functional” cells, neutrophils, red blood cells and lymphocytes developed in the bone marrow from their corresponding committed precursor cells. It was found that the neutrophils that appear in the peripheral blood circulation following injection of leucogenenol originated from the neutrophils in the bone marrow. A scheme was presented to show that leucogenenol and adroxazine play key roles in regulating the circulation of blood cells. Stem cells act as the building blocks for the tissues and organs of physiologic systems. Research studies have shown stem-cells potential to treat a wide range of diseases. The Stem-cells play important roles in the treatment of various medical conditions and monitoring of bodily functions. Stem-cell therapy has shown results in treating conditions via peripheral blood circulation in the growth of new blood vessels such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, Parkinson’s disease. Clinical trials are being conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of stem cell based-therapies in treating various diseases such as Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) which is a type of blood cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood cells characterized by the abnormal growth of white blood cells that affects the bone marrow and blood cells known as myeloid cells. Stem cell therapies have great potential to become one of the most important tools of regenerative medicine and untreatable diseases. In this review, different types of stem-cell-based therapies are described, which are used in treating various diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Blood Stem cells, therapies, clinical trials, CRISPR Therapeutics</p> Kaiser J. Aziz-Andersen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0600