Insulin Resistance and Polycystic ovary Syndrome: A Review
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, yet complex, endocrine disorder affecting women in their reproductive years and is a leading cause of infertility. This disease appears to be multifactorial and polygenic in nature involving multisystem dysfunction, namely reproduction, endocrine and metabolic. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance appear to be central cause to the pathophysiology of the disease. The glucose and insulin metabolism pathways have been studied and debated to understand whether Insulin Resistance is due to a defect in insulin action or a primary defect in β-cell function or decreased hepatic clearance of insulin, or a combination of all these factors. Numerous studies have demonstrated that obese, normal weight and thin women with PCOS have a form of insulin resistance that is unique and intrinsic to the disorder. Moreover obese women with PCOS possess an additional burden of insulin resistance resulting from their excess adiposity. Hyperinsulinemia leads to increase in androgen production directly by acting as a co-gonadotropin, augmenting Luteinizing Hormone activity within the ovary, and indirectly by increasing serum LH pulse amplitude. Whereas Androgens may in turn contribute at least partially to the insulin resistance state linked with PCOS. In this review, we will briefly study the role of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance, Hyperandrogenism.
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