Smoking of tobacco is the cause of human lung cancer

  • Ilija Barukčić Internist, Horandstrasse, DE-26441 Jever, Germany


Objective: The aim of this study is to re-evaluate the relationship between smoking and lung cancer.

Methods: In order to clarify the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer, a review and meta-analysis of appropriate studies with a total sample size of n = 48393 was conducted. The p-value was set to p < 0,05.

Results: It was not possible to reject the null-hypothesis H0: without smoking no lung cancer. Furthermore, the null-hypothesis H0: No causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer was rejected.

Conclusions: Compared to the results from previous studies, the results of this study confirm previously published results. According the results of this study, without smoking no lung cancer. Smoking is the cause of lung cancer.

Keywords: Smoking, lung cancer, causal relationship


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Ilija Barukčić, Internist, Horandstrasse, DE-26441 Jever, Germany

Internist, Horandstrasse, DE-26441 Jever, Germany


1. Hasse KE. An Anatomical Description of the Diseases of the Organs of Circulation and Respiration, London, Sydenham Society; 1846. Accessed January 25, 2019.
2. Ferlay J, Colombet M, Soerjomataram I, et al. Estimating the global cancer incidence and mortality in 2018: GLOBOCAN sources and methods, Int J Cancer, December 2018. doi:
3. Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries, CA Cancer J Clin, 2018; 68(6):394-424. doi:
4. Sant M, Allemani C, Santaquilani M, Knijn A, Marchesi F, Capocaccia R. EUROCARE-4. Survival of cancer patients diagnosed in 1995–1999. Results and commentary, Eur J Cancer, 2009; 45(6):931-991. doi:
5. Thun MJ. Early landmark studies of smoking and lung cancer, Lancet Oncol, 2010; 11(12):1200. doi:
6. Müller FH. Tabakmißbrauch und Lungencarcinom, Z Für Krebsforsch, 1940; 49(1):57-85. doi:
7. Morabia A. Quality, originality, and significance of the 1939 “Tobacco consumption and lung carcinoma” article by Mueller, including translation of a section of the paper, Prev Med, 2012; 55(3):171-177. doi:
8. Parsons A, Daley A, Begh R, Aveyard P. Influence of smoking cessation after diagnosis of early stage lung cancer on prognosis: systematic review of observational studies with meta-analysis, BMJ, 2010; 340(jan21 1):b5569-b5569. doi:
9. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement, Open Med Peer-Rev Indep Open-Access J, 2009; 3(3):123-130.
10. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration, PLoS Med, 2009; 6(7):1000100. doi:
11. Doll R, Hill AB. Study of the Aetiology of Carcinoma of the Lung, Br Med J, 1952; 2(4797):1271-1286. Accessed January 22, 2019.
12. Lombard HL. An epidemiological study in lung cancer, Cancer, 1965; 18(10):1301-1309.
13. Wynder EL, Stellman SD. Impact of long-term filter cigarette usage on lung and larynx cancer risk: a case-control study, J Natl Cancer Inst, 1979; 62(3):471-477.
14. Benhamou S, Benhamou E, Tirmarche M, Flamant R. Lung cancer and use of cigarettes: a French case-control study, J Natl Cancer Inst, 1985; 74(6):1169-1175.
15. Harris RE, Zang EA, Anderson JI, Wynder EL. Race and Sex Differences in Lung Cancer Risk Associated with Cigarette Smoking, Int J Epidemiol, 1993; 22(4):592-599. doi:
16. Pershagen G, Akerblom G, Axelson O, et al. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer in Sweden, N Engl J Med, 1994; 330(3):159-164. doi:
17. Sobue T, Suzuki T, Fujimoto I, et al. Case-control study for lung cancer and cigarette smoking in Osaka, Japan: comparison with the results from Western Europe, Jpn J Cancer Res Gann, 1994; 85(5):464-473.
18. Jöckel KH, Ahrens W, Jahn I, Pohlabeln H, Bolm-Audorff U. Occupational risk factors for lung cancer: a case-control study in West Germany, Int J Epidemiol, 1998; 27(4):549-560.
19. Kreuzer M, Kreienbrock L, Gerken M, et al. Risk factors for lung cancer in young adults, Am J Epidemiol, 1998; 147(11):1028-1037.
20. Boffetta P, Pershagen G, Jockel K-H, et al. Cigar and Pipe Smoking and Lung Cancer Risk: a Multicenter Study From Europe, JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst, 1999; 91(8):697-701. doi:
21. Moivre A de [1667-1754]. The Doctrine of Chances or a Method of Calculating the Probability of Events in Play, London: printed by W. Pearson for the author; 1718. doi:
22. Kolmogoroff A. Grundbegriffe Der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 1933. doi:
23. Barukčić I. Die Kausalität, 1. Aufl. Hamburg: Wiss.-Verl.; 1989.
24. Barukčić I. The Mathematical Formula of the Causal Relationship k, Int J Appl Phys Math, 2016; 6(2):45-65. doi:
25. Barukčić I. Theoriae Causalitatis Principia Mathematica, Norderstedt: Books on Demand; 2017.
26. Barukčić I. Helicobacter Pylori is the Cause of Gastric Cancer, Mod Health Sci, 2018; 1(1):43-50. doi:
27. Barukčić I. Human Papillomavirus—The Cause of Human Cervical Cancer, J Biosci Med, 2018d; 06(04):106-125. doi:
28. Barukčić I. Human Cytomegalovirus is the Cause of Glioblastoma Multiforme, Mod Health Sci, 2018; 1(2):19. doi:
29. Barukčić I. The Equivalence of Time and Gravitational Field, Phys Procedia, 2011; 22:56-62. doi:
30. Barukčić I. Epstein-barr virus is the cause of multiple sclerosis, Int J Curr Med Pharm Res, 2018; 4(9 (A)):3674-3682. doi:
31. Barukčić K, Barukčić JP, Barukčić I. Epstein-Barr virus is the cause of rheumatoid arthritis, Romanian J Rheumatol, 2018; 27(4):148-163. Accessed December 29, 2018.
32. Wertheimer R. Conditions, J Philos, 1968; 65:355–364.
33. Gomes G. Are Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Converse Relations, Australas J Philos, 2009; 87:375–387. doi:
34. Fisher RA. On the Interpretation of χ 2 from Contingency Tables, and the Calculation of P, J R Stat Soc, 1922; 85(1):87. doi:
35. Yates F. Contingency Tables Involving Small Numbers and the χ 2 Test, J R Stat Soc Suppl, 1934; 1(2):217. doi:
36. Grizzle JE. Continuity Correction in the χ 2 -Test for 2 × 2 Tables, Am Stat, 1967; 21(4):28. doi:
37. Conover WJ. Some Reasons for Not Using the Yates Continuity Correction on 2×2 Contingency Tables, J Am Stat Assoc, 1974; 69(346):374-376. doi:
38. Pearson K. X. On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arisen from random sampling, Lond Edinb Dublin Philos Mag J Sci, 1900; 50(302):157-175.
39. Rumke CL. Implications of the Statement: No Side Effects Were Observed, N Engl J Med, 1975; 292(7):372-373.
40. Louis TA. Confidence Intervals for a Binomial Parameter after Observing No Successes, Am Stat, 1981; 35(3):154-154.
41. Hanley JA. If Nothing Goes Wrong, Is Everything All Right?, JAMA, 1983; 249(13):1743.
42. Jovanovic BD, Levy PS. A Look at the Rule of Three, Am Stat, 1997; 51(2):137-139.
43. Isserlis L. On the Value of a Mean as Calculated from a Sample, J R Stat Soc, 1918; 81(1):75. doi:
44. Fisher RA. The Logic of Inductive Inference, J R Stat Soc, 1935; 98(1):39. doi:
45. Cornfield J. A method of estimating comparative rates from clinical data; applications to cancer of the lung, breast, and cervix, J Natl Cancer Inst, 1951; 11(6):1269-1275.
46. Edwards AWF. The Measure of Association in a 2 × 2 Table, J R Stat Soc Ser Gen, 1963; 126(1):109. doi:
47. Mosteller F. Association and Estimation in Contingency Tables, J Am Stat Assoc, 1968; 63(321):1. doi:
48. Pearson K, Heron D. On Theories of Association, Biometrika, 1913; 9(1-2):159-315. doi:
49. Altman DG. Practical Statistics for Medical Research, Boca Raton, Fla: Chapman & Hall/CRC; 1999.
50. Sachs L. Angewandte Statistik, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 1992.
51. Taylor R, Cumming R, Woodward A, Black M. Passive smoking and lung cancer: a cumulative meta-analysis, Aust N Z J Public Health, 2001; 25(3):203-211.
52. Sheng L, Tu J-W, Tian J-H, Chen H-J, Pan C-L, Zhou R-Z. A meta-analysis of the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer risk of nonsmoker in China, Medicine (Baltimore), 2018; 97(28):e11389. doi:
53. Kim A-S, Ko H-J, Kwon J-H, Lee J-M. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Risk of Cancer in Never Smokers: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies, Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018; 15(9):1981. doi:
962 Views | 528 Downloads
How to Cite
Barukčić I. Smoking of tobacco is the cause of human lung cancer. JDDT [Internet]. 15Feb.2019 [cited 18May2021];9(1-s):148-60. Available from: