Kasni (Cichorium intybus): A Unani Hepatoprotective Drug
Kasni (Cichorium intybus Linn.) is a powerful hepatoprotective and nephroprotective drug which has been extensively used in Unani System of Medicine. It is commonly known as chicory in English language. It is an erect perennial herb of the dandelion family Asteraceae. There are two types of Kasni depending on colour of the flowers which are usually bright blue and white or pink rarely. Chicory consists of a dietary fibre called as Inulin which is very useful in treating diabetes and constipation. As per Unani classical literature, it has been extensively used as Mufatteh Sudud (Deobstruent), Musaffi Dam (Blood Purifier), Muqawwi Kabid (Hepatic Tonic), Muqaiwwi Meda (Tonic for Stomach), Waram e Meda (Gastritis), Amraz e Kabid (Liver Disorders), Ghisyan (Nausea and Vomiting), Amraze Kulliya (Kidney Diseases), etc. The root of Kasni possesses various properties such as Aperient, Cholagogue, Deobstruent, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Resolvent. Its leaves’ decoction is used as lithotriptic and also useful in elimination of internal mucus. This paper gives an overview of types, phytochemical studies, pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of Kasni as per Unani classical literature and current scientific studies.
Keywords: Kasni, Cichorium intybus Linn., Unani System of Medicine, Hepatoprotective, Unani drug.
2. Kocsis I, “Effects of chicory on pancreas status of rats in experimental dyslipidemia”, Acta Biologica Szegediensis, 2003;47(1-4):143-146.
3. Ghaderi R, “Comparison of Antibacterial Effect of Cichorium Intybus L. with Vancomycin, Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin and Penicillin (in vitro)”, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Clin Exp Pharmacol, 2012; 2(2):113.
4. Meehye K and Shin HK, “The water-soluble extract of chicory reduces glucose uptake from the perfused jejunum in rats”, J Nutr, 1996; 126(9): 2236-2242.
5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicory (Assessed on 23.04.2020)
6. Anonymous. Standardisation of Single drugs of Unani Medicine. Part II. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, 1992.P. 101-107.
7. Bais HP and Ravishankar GA, “Cichorium intybus cultivation, processing, utility, value addition and biotechnology, with an emphasis on current status and prospects” J Sci Food Agric, 2001; 81: 467-484.
8. Ghani AHN. Khazain ul Advia. Vol. V. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, 2010.P. 233-235.
9. Kabiruddin H. Makhzanul Mufradat Khawas ul Advia. Lahore: Usman Publications, 2007. P.428-429.
10. Ibn Sina, Al Qanoon Fit Tib. Vol 2. Lucknow: Nami Press, 1906. P. 160.
11. Ibn Rushd. Kitabul Kuliyat. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, 1987.P. 226.
12. Jeelani G. Maghzan ul Ilaj. Vol I. New Delhi: Idara Kitabul Shifa, 2005. P.579.
13. Fathalla N, Bishr M, Singab AN and Salama O, “Phytochemical and biological evaluation of Cichorium intybus Seeds”, Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 2015; 10(1):70-76.
14. Anonymous. The Wealth of India. Vol III. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1992. P. 555-561.
15. Mukherjee PK. Quality Control of Herbal Drugs. Vol-3. Ist edition. New Delhi: Business horizon publications, 2002. P.183-193.
16. Carazzone C, Mascherpa D, Gazzani G and Papetti A, “Identification of phenolic constituents in red chicory salads Cichorium intybus by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometer”, Food Chemistry, 2013; 138:1062-71.
17. Leclercq E, “Determination of lactucin in roots of chicory (Cichorium intybus ) by high-performance liquid chromatography”, Journal of Chromatography A, 1984; 283:441-444.
18. Saxena R, Belemkar S, Apte KG, Saxena RC, Bharti M, “Antiulcerogenic and Antioxidant Activity of Hydro alcoholic extract of the root of Cichorium intybus L. in experimentally induced ulcer in Rats”, Ethnopharmacology, 2011; 2:1-4.
19. Nandagopal S, Ranjithakumari BD, “Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of chicory (Cichorium intybus ) – a multipurpose medicinal plant”, Adv Biol Res, 2007; 1(12):17-21.
20. Hardeep FM, Pandey DK, “Anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of chicory roots in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats”, International Journal of Pharmacy, 2013; 3(1):211-216.
21. Pushparaj PN, Low HK, Manikandan J, Tan BKH and Tan CH, “Anti-diabetic effects of Cichorium intybus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2007; 111(2):430-434.
22. Ghamarian A, Abdollahi M, Su X, Amiri A, Ahadi A and Nowrouzi A, “Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 20:56-65.
23. Tousch D, Lajoix AD and Hosy E, “Chicoric acid, a new compound able to enhance insulin release and glucose uptake”, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2008; 377(1):131-135.
24. Ahmed B, Khan S, Masood MH, Siddique AH, “Antihepatotoxic activity of cichotyboside, a sesquiterpene glycoside from the seeds of Cichorium intybus”, Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 2008; 10(3-4):223-231.
25. Gilani AH and Janbaz KH, “Evaluation of the liver protective potential of Cichorium intybus seed extract on acetaminophen and CC14-induced damage”, Phytomedicine, 1994; 1(3):193-197.
26. Sadeghi H, Nikbakht M, Ghaitasi I and Sabzali S, “Hepatoprotective effect of Cichorium intybus on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats”, African Journal of Biochemistry Research, 2008; 2(6):141-144.
27. G¨urb¨uz I, Ust¨un O, Yes¸ilada E, Sezik E and Aky¨urek N, “In-vivo gastroprotective effects of five Turkish folk remedies against ethanol-induced lesions”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2002; 83(3):241-244.
28. Cavin C, Delannoy M, Malnoe A, Debefve E, Touche A, Courtois D and Schilter B, “Inhibition of the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase2 by chicory extract”, Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2005; 327(3):742-749.
29. Wesołowska A, Nikiforuk A, Michalska K, Kisiel W and Chojnacka-W´ojcik E, “Analgesic and sedative activities of lactucin and some lactucin-like guaianolides in mice”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006; 107(2):254-258.
30. Gazzani G, Daglia M, Papetti A and Gregotti C, “In-vitro and ex-vivo anti and prooxidant components of Cichorium intybus”, J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2000; 23:127-133.
31. Mehmood N, Zubaır M, Rızwan K, Rasool N, Shahid M and Ahmad UV, “Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of Cichorium intybus seeds extract and various organic fractions”, Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2012; 11(4):1145-1151.
32. Nayeemunnisa and Rani MK, “Cardioprotective effects of Cichorium intybus in ageing myocardium of albino rat”, April Curr Sci, 2003; 84(7):941.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).