Modern Contraceptive Use and Associated Factors among Reproductive Age Group Women in three Peri-Urban Communities in Central Ethiopia

  • Alfoalem Araba Abiye Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • Bethel Fekede
  • Ayenew Mulualem Jemberie
  • Bereket Abraha Molla
  • Beruk Ketema Tolla
  • Bethlelem Sisay Tefera
  • Bezawit Melaku Barkiligne
  • Bikiltu Dugassa Dirbaba
  • Biruhtesfa Dechasa Olana
  • Biruk Worku Tesfa
  • Hassen Sied Kemal
  • Assefa Seme Deresse Department of Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Introduction: - Amongst the family planning program is the use of modern contraception. It is one of the key fundamentals of health services whose benefits are wellbeing’s of mothers, husbands, families, and their country in general. According to the world fertility rate report 2015, Ethiopia is expected to achieve a TFR of 2.4 children per woman between the years 2025-2030.

Objective: - the principal objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of modern contraception use and factors that affect utilization.

Methods: - a quantitative community based cross-sectional study was done in three peri-urban communities of Batu, Eastern Shewa zone of Oromia region of Ethiopia from October to November 2017. A total of 351 women in the reproductive age group were interviewed with a questionnaire in the form of a house-to-house survey. Statistical analysis was done using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0.

Results: - the study showed that the contraception prevalence was 37.9%. Forty-seven percent of the users were in the age group 21-29. Knowledge, formal education and religion were associated with contraception utilization. It was found that knowledge and formal education were the enhancing factors for utilization whereas the Muslim religion was an inhibiting factor for modern contraceptive use.

Conclusion: - the contraceptive prevalence was higher than the national result for the rural community but lower than the urban community was. Both governmental and non-governmental organizations should continue the good work of building community awareness of modern contraceptive methods.

Keywords: - Contraceptives, knowledge, attitude, practice, Batu


Download data is not yet available.


1. Neal S, Matthews Z, Frost M, Fogstad H, Camacho AV, Laski L. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Sep;91(9):1114–8.
2. Alkema L, Raftery AE, Gerland P, Clark SJ, Pelletier F, Buettner T, et al. Probabilistic Projections of the Total Fertility Rate for All Countries. Demography. 2011 Aug;48(3):815–39.
3. K. A, Kantorová V, Bongaarts J. Demographic Components of Future Population Growth [Internet]. Population Division, United Nations; 2013 [cited 2019 Jul 12]. Available from:
4. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, population division. World Fertility Patterns 2015 [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Mar 20]. Available from:
5. Ndwiga T, M Kei R, Okong’o S. The Use of Modern Contraceptives Among Women of Child Bearing Age Attending MCH/FP Clinic at Uasin Gishu Sub-County Hospital, Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya. Science Journal of Public Health. 2015 May 29;3(4):500–7.
6. Central Statistical Agency (CSA) [Ethiopia], ICF. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2016 [Internet]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: CSA and ICF; 2017 Jul p. 551. Report No.: FR328. Available from:
7. Ashraf QH, Weil DN, Wilde J. The Effect of Fertility Reduction on Economic Growth. Popul Dev Rev. 2013 Mar;39(1):97–130.
8. Soest A van, Saha UR. Relationships between infant mortality, birth spacing and fertility in Matlab, Bangladesh. PLOS ONE. 2018 Apr 27;13(4):e0195940.
9. Michael R. H. The Relationshp Between Infant and Child Mortality and Fertility: Some Historical and Contemporary Evidence for the United States [Internet]. National Academies Press (US); 1998 [cited 2019 Jul 12]. Available from:
10. UNFPA. Family planning [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 12]. Available from:
11. Esabella JM. Use of Contraceptives Methods among Women in Stable Marital Relations Attending Health Facilities in Kahama District, Shinyanga Region, Tanzania [Internet] [A dissertation submitted inPartial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Public Health]. [Tanzania]: Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences; 2012 [cited 2019 Mar 22]. Available from:
12. World Health Organization. World Health Organization Fact Sheet. 2013.
13. Mosha PE, Mgimwa CA, Msuya SM. Assessment of Knowledge and Perception Towards Modern Contraceptives Use Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mtwivila, Tanzania. Science Journal of Public Health. 2017 Jul 13;5(4):335.
14. Maria Paz N. M, Maria Midea M. K, Elma P. L. Ten Years of Traditional Contraceptive Method Use in the Philippines: Continuity and Change [Internet]. USA: USAID and ICF; 2017 Jul [cited 2019 Mar 26] p. 36. Available from:
15. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Trends in Contraceptive Use Worldwide, 2015. [Internet]. New York, USA: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; 2015 [cited 2019 Mar 23] p. 70. Report No.: ST/ESA/SER.A/349. Available from:
16. Beson P, Appiah R, Adomah-Afari A. Modern contraceptive use among reproductive-aged women in Ghana: prevalence, predictors, and policy implications. BMC Women’s Health. 2018 Sep 25;18(1):157.
17. Eliason S, Awoonor-Williams JK, Eliason C, Novignon J, Nonvignon J, Aikins M. Determinants of modern family planning use among women of reproductive age in the Nkwanta district of Ghana: a case-control study. Reprod Health. 2014 Aug 13;11(1):65.
18. Batool Z, Sabahat H. Reasons for Low Modern Contraceptive Use – Insights from Pakistan and Neighboring Countries [Internet]. Islamabad, Pakistan: The Population Council, Inc.; 2015 Jan [cited 2019 Mar 23] p. 26. Available from:
19. Brhanie TW, Tsegaye Asires M. Assessment of Factors Affecting Modern Contraceptive Utilization in Merawi Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Primary Health Care Open Access [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2019 Mar 12];6(3). Available from:
20. Oddens BJ. Determinants of contraceptive use: From birth control to fertility awareness. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 1997;71(1):1.
21. Central Statistical Agency (CSA) [Ethiopia], Ministry of Health (MoH) [Ethiopia]. Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2014 [Internet]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: CSA and MOH; 2014 Aug [cited 2019 Mar 23] p. 112. Available from:
22. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Health. Health Sector Transformation Plan 2015/16-2019/20 [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2019 Mar 23]. Available from:
23. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Universal Access to Reproductive Health: Progress and Challenges [Internet]. 2016. Available from:
24. Sher Ethiopia Hospital in Ziway [Internet]. Semonegna Ethiopia. [cited 2019 Mar 31]. Available from:
25. Frostenson S. What the US can learn from Ethiopia about birth control [Internet]. Vox. 2016 [cited 2019 Mar 27]. Available from:
26. Ethiopia: Regions, Major Cities & Towns - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts [Internet]. [cited 2019 Mar 31]. Available from:
27. Kibret S, Boelee E, Petros B, Tekie H. Entomological Studies on the Impact of a Small-scale Irrigation Scheme on Malaria Transmission around Ziway, Central Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Development Research. 2010 Jan 1;32(1):109–36.
28. Kebede T, Negash Y, Erko B. Schistosoma mansoni infection in human and nonhuman primates in selected areas of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 2018 Apr 1;55(2):116.
29. Lwanga SK, Lemeshow S. Sample size determination in health studies : a practical manual [Internet]. Geneva : World Health Organization; 1991 [cited 2019 Apr 6]. Available from:
30. Oromia Economic Study Project Office. Adami Tullu-Jido Kombolcha Woreda Based Development Programme [Internet]. Regional Government of Oromia; 2003 [cited 2019 Jul 13]. Available from:
31. Unintended Pregnancy Prevention | Unintended Pregnancy | Reproductive Health | CDC [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 13]. Available from:
32. Debebe S, Andualem Limenih M, Biadgo B. Modern contraceptive methods utilization and associated factors among reproductive aged women in rural Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia: Community based cross-sectional study. Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd). 2017 Jun;15(6):367–74.
33. Hamdalla T, Arega A, Markos T. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Modern Contraceptive Utilization among Married Women in Reproductive Age Group in Misha Woreda Hadiya Zone, South Ethiopia. Journal of Womens Health Care [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2019 Mar 12];06(03). Available from:
34. Tengia-Kessy A, Rwabudongo N. UTILIZATION OF MODERN FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN A RURAL SETTING: THE CASE OF SHINYANGA RURAL DISTRICT, TANZANIA. East African Journal of Public Health [Internet]. 2007 Apr 18 [cited 2019 Mar 12];3(2). Available from:
35. Anaman KA, Okai JOA. Extent of Awareness of Birth Control Methods and Their Use by Women in a Peri-Urban Area of Accra, Ghana. Modern Economy. 2016;07:39.
36. Ghana Statistical Service, ICF, Ghana Health Service. Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2014 [Internet]. Ghana and USA: GSS, GHS and ICF; 2015 Oct [cited 2019 Mar 23] p. 530. Report No.: FR307. Available from:
37. Republic of Kenya. Republic of Kenya, Demographic Health Survey of 2008-09 [Internet]. Nairobi; 2010 [cited 2019 Mar 22] p. 405. Report No.: FR229. Available from:
38. Wawire NHW, Mburu TK. Contraceptive Use among Women of Reproductive Age in Kenya’s City Slums. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2011 Jan;2(1):22–43.
39. WHO. Early marriages, adolescent and young pregnancies [Internet]. 2011 Dec p. 4. Report No.: EB130/12. Available from:
40. Bermio J, Larguita E, Reotutar P, M Mathed R. Beliefs and Practices During Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, Postpartum and Infant Care of Women in the Second District of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. 2017 Sep 1;8.
41. Mubita-Ngoma C, Chongo Kadantu M. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia. Curationis. 2010 Jan;33(1):17–22.
42. Srikanthan A, Reid RL. Religious and Cultural Influences on Contraception. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 2008 Feb;30(2):129–37.
43. Ai DO-B, Ol A, Aa A. Contraceptive practices among women in Rural Communities in South-Western Nigeria. Global Journal of Medical Research [Internet]. 2011 May 20 [cited 2019 Mar 11];11(2). Available from:
44. Jones RK, Dreweke J. Countering Conventional Wisdom: New Evidence on Religion and Contraceptive Use [Internet]. New York , USA: Guttmacher Institute; 2011 Apr [cited 2019 Mar 31] p. 8. Available from:
45. Bakibinga P, Mutombo N, Mukiira C, Kamande E, Ezeh A, Muga R. The Influence of Religion and Ethnicity on Family Planning Approval: A Case for Women in Rural Western Kenya. Journal of Religion and Health. 2016 Feb;55(1):192–205.
46. Asekun-Olarinmoye E, Adebimpe W, Bamidele J, Odu O, Asekun-Olarinmoye I, Ojofeitimi E. Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria. Int J Womens Health. 2013 Oct 11;5:647–55.
47. Iyer S. Religion and the Decision to Use Contraception in India. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 2002 Dec 1;41(4):711–22.
48. Agadjanian V, Yabiku ST, Fawcett L. History, Community Milieu, and Christian‐Muslim Differentials in Contraceptive Use in Sub‐Saharan Africa. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 2009 Sep 1;48(3):462–79.
49. Gonie A, Wudneh A, Nigatu D, Dendir Z. Determinants of family planning use among married women in bale eco-region, Southeast Ethiopia: a community based study. BMC Womens Health [Internet]. 2018 Mar 12 [cited 2019 Mar 31];18. Available from:
50. Tilahun T, Coene G, Temmerman M, Degomme O. Spousal discordance on fertility preference and its effect on contraceptive practice among married couples in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Reproductive Health [Internet]. 2014 Dec [cited 2019 Mar 31];11(1). Available from:
51. Kabir M, Chowdhury RI, Amin R. Infant and child mortality levels and trends in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science. 1995 Apr;27(2):179–92.
52. Beatrice K. Effect of Advertising on Contraceptive Usage among the Youth in Turkana County [Internet]. [Nairobi, Kenya]: The University of Nairobi; 2013 [cited 2019 Mar 31]. Available from:
160 Views | 113 Downloads
How to Cite
Abiye A, Fekede B, Jemberie AM, Molla B, Tolla BK, Tefera B, Barkiligne B, Dirbaba B, Olana B, Tesfa B, Kemal H, Deresse A. Modern Contraceptive Use and Associated Factors among Reproductive Age Group Women in three Peri-Urban Communities in Central Ethiopia. JDDT [Internet]. 15Dec.2019 [cited 31Oct.2020];9(6-s):93-02. Available from: