Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Thu, 15 Oct 2020 03:50:35 -0500 OJS 60 Knowledge Awareness and Attitude of Women toward Epidural Anesthesia during Labor <p><strong>Background:</strong> Epidural analgesia is a central nerve block technique achieved by injection of a local anesthetic close to the nerves that transmit pain, and is widely used as a form of pain relief in labor. However, it is likely that epidural blocks lengthen labor and result in increased rates of operative vaginal delivery. Although, questions have been raised about its side effects.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aims of this research study are; to predict the common use of epidural analgesia in Palestinian women, to assess its effectiveness on pain relief, and to determine its adverse effects. However, the study designed to measure the knowledge awareness, and attitude of Palestinian women toward epidural anesthesia during labor.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire. The study included females (age &lt; 20 - &gt; 40 years old) from all governorates in Palestine. The survey was designed to measure the knowledge awareness and attitude of Palestinian women toward epidural anesthesia during labor. A total of 2685 females participated in the study. SPSS version 22 was used to analyze the data collected.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> About 893 women (33%) participated in the research study didn’t use the epidural analgesia and 1792 (67%) women used it, out of 2685 women completed the questionnaire. The research study included Palestinian women in different Governorates in Palestine. 43.2 % (800) of women who participated in this research study mentioned that the epidural injection is painless, 29.3% (543) said that it is painful and others filled it may be painful. In women used epidural injection, the expending of uterus was 1-2 cm in 355 women (20.5%), 2-3 cm in 325 women (18.7%), 3-4 cm in 482 women (27.8 %), 4-5 cm in 355 women (20.5%) and more than 5 cm in 218 women (12.6 %). The percentage of birth pain which anesthetized by epidural analgesia; 621 women (35%) mentioned that the epidural injection anesthetized about 80-100% , 24.5% (434) is 60-80% ,13% (230) is 40-60% , 9.4 (166) is 20-40% and 18.2% (322) is 0-20% .&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hatem A Hejaz, Khulood Skafe, Suzan Awawdeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Prescribing Pattern of Drugs Used in Chronic Liver Disease with Co Morbid Conditions and Assessment of Severity using MELD Score: A Prospective Observational Study <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To study the prescribing pattern of drugs &amp; its use in the treatment of CLD &amp; assess the pattern of co-morbidities associated with CLD. To Study the mortality rate of the patient using MELD score at a department of general medicine at Osmania general Hospital to produce a result which would aid better rational drug use and improve quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A Prospective, observational study was carried out at OGH for a period of 6 months in 100 old patients. Population of either sex or ≥&nbsp;18 years of age were included.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is a considerable scope for improving prescribing pattern in CLD by minimizing the use, reduction of doses of drugs to reduce the consequence of hepatotoxicity and Antibiotic Resistance. The prognostic impact of individual comorbidities, on the other hand, may point to areas where cirrhosis and comorbid diseases interact. Studies of individual comorbidities may therefore improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of cirrhosis. MELD showed that the subjects were less likely to get a Liver transplant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Chronic liver disease (CLD), Model for end stage liver disease (MELD), Diabetes Mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN)</p> Samreen Huma, Omer Nishat Fatima, Ishrath Ayesha, Jamal Mohammed Moiz, Shareef Mohammed Mohiuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Olanzapine for the Treatment of Psychosis <p>Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are typically spherical with an average diameter between 1 nm to 1000 nm in range. It is alternative carrier systems to tradition colloidal carriers, such as liposomes emulsions and polymeric micro and nanoparticles. Olanzapine (OZP) is an atypical antipsychotic agent which is used for treatment of Schizophrenia. Its oral bioavailability is around of 40%. OZP is a class II drug so it having low aqueous solubility. To overcome that problem and to increase its bioavailability, the solid lipid nanoparticles of olanzapine are prepared. Formulation batches designed by modifying type of surfactant ( Span 80, Tween 80), concentration of surfactant, Concentration of co-surfactant, type of lipid ( glyceryl monostearate, Stearic acid), Lipid concentration, speed of stirring and time of stirring using customised design&nbsp; of DOE. The SLN were prepared by high speed homogenization technique, and then characterized by particle size analysis, Drug entrapment efficiency and Drug diffusion study. A formulation containing GMS as a lipid stabilised with tween 80 as surfactant show good drug release, smaller particle size, as compared with other formulations with different lipid and surfactant. The present research findings indicate that OZP loaded solid lipid Nano particulate system for delivery of OZP with better efficacy with minimum adverse effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Olanzapine, SLN, GMS, high speed homogenization and DOE.</p> Shubhangi C. Daswadkar, Abhijit Vasant Atole ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 In-vivo Evaluation and Characterization of Novel In-Situ Gelling System as Controlled Delivery System Containing Ciprofloxacin for Ocular Drug Delivery <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The purpose of this research was to develop the micro emulsion-based in situ gelling systems containing Ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis and treatment of the posterior segment diseases like endophthalmitis.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Ciprofloxacin was encapsulated in small droplets owing to form microemulsion, and then the formed droplets were dispersed in a polymer solution that converted into a gel upon triggered by the electrolyte present in the tear fluid.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The formulation approach provides better absorption, penetration, retention, and improves the bioavailability of the drug. The average concentration reached into vitreous humor from topical microemulsion in situ gelling formulation was ~0.4 µg/ml, which is far more than the concentration required for therapeutic effect (i.e.&nbsp; &gt;0.047 µg/ml or &gt;MIC90 for S. Epidermidis, a pathogen commonly responsible to cause endophthalmitis).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Thus, novel micro emulsion-based in situ gelling formulation could be a potential drug delivery system for the treatment of posterior segment diseases like endophthalmitis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Microemulsion, ciprofloxacin, endophthalmitis, ocular, infection, in situ</p> Fatima Eram, , Vivek ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity Studies and Anti-Sickling Activity Assessment of FACA® Syrup <p>Sickle cell disease remains a major public health problem in Burkina Faso and Africa. For the management of this pathology in young children, the Institute for Research in Health Sciences has developed an herbal drug called FACA<sup>®</sup> syrup. The objective of this study was to verify the safety and pharmacological efficacy of this formulation for its use in the management of sickle cell disease. Acute and subacute oral toxicity tests were performed on Wistar rats in accordance with Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines and anti-sickling activity of FACA<sup>®</sup> syrup was evaluated according to the Emmel test. In the acute test, FACA<sup>®</sup> syrup didn’t cause mortality or any behavioral change at dose of 2000 mg/kg/b.w suggesting that the test product estimated LD50 is 5000 mg/kg b.w. The results of subacute toxicity study indicate that the daily administration of FACA<sup>®</sup> syrup during 28 days did not result in significant change on physical, haematological and biochemical parameters up to dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w. The evaluation of effect of FACA<sup>®</sup> syrup <em>in vitro</em> on sickling revealed that, FACA<sup>®</sup> syrup possesses a real antisickling activity. Regarding these results FACA<sup>® </sup>syrup would be considered as safe in both acute and subacute exposure and could be used in the management of sickle cell diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> FACA® syrup, oral toxicity, sickle cell anemia, Antisickling activity</p> Geoffroy Gueswindé OUEDRAOGO, Sylvain ILBOUDO, Salfo OUEDRAOGO, Jean Claude Romaric Pingdwendé OUEDRAOGO, Gaëtan Donzéo SOMDA, Sidiki TRAORE, Lazare BELEMNABA, Noufou OUEDRAOGO, Félix Bondo KINI, Marius LOMPO, Innocent Pierre GUISSOU, Sylvin OUEDRAOGO ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Sperm Profile of Infertile Men in the Western Region of Algeria: About 320 Cases <p><strong>Objective&nbsp;: </strong>The aim of this study is to describe the sperm profile and eventually determine the main spermatic disturbances at the origin of male infertility in western Algeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We conducted a cross-sectional study in 320 infertile male patients consulting at the Medically Assisted Procreation Unit (MAP) of Oran, in Western Algeria, in the end of exploring the results of their semen analyses and semen culture.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of semen analysis revealed that the main spermatic disruption in our study was asthenospermia because at the first hour after emission, 93% of our patients had less mobility than normal.</p> <p>Oligospermia was present in 37% of cases and azoospermia in 14% of cases. That is, a concentration of sperm below normal in 51% of cases.</p> <p>Results of the analysis of the sperm’s morphological characteristics revealed that only 16% of our patients had teratospermia.</p> <p>The semen culture revealed that the main pathogen found in our patients is Staphylococci in nearly 70% of cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study revealed alterations in both quantitative and qualitative semen of patients. This was mainly asthenospermia in 93% of cases followed by oligospermia.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Male infertility, <em>Semen analysis</em>, Semen culture, Western Algeria.</p> Anissa FIZAZI, Malika BENDAHMANE, Tewfik SAHRAOUI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative Non-Randomised Observational Study of Prasugrel and Ticagrelor in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention <p>Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is the primary guideline-recommended treatment strategy for patients presenting with CAD, STEMI, NSTEMI, Unstable Angina. It is known that, the use of oral P2Y12 receptor antagonists (Prasugrel and Ticagrelor) in PCI patients could lead to improved outcomes compared with clopidogrel. This study has been designed for review and analysis of clinical safety and outcomes of these agents in patients undergoing PCI. &nbsp;Out of 100 patients (50 in Prasugrel group &amp; 50 in Ticagrelor group) considered for the study, the incidence of stroke, stent thrombosis was comparable between the groups with P =0.044, P =0.041 respectively and was not comparable for MI (P=0.245). Single Death was reported. The results differed significantly for Palpitations/Arrhythmia(P=0.018), SOB(P=0.000), Dizziness(P=0.005), Creatinine levels(P=0.000), Fatigue(P=0.003), Headache(P=0.000) and did not differ significantly for Bleeding and Back pain in both the drug groups with P =1.000, P =0.438 respectively. Also, majority of the patients showed decreased platelet count in both the drug groups. Withdrawal parameters, like withdrawal due to cost(P=0.172) and withdrawal due to fear of side effects(P=1.000) when evaluated for both the drugs showed no significant difference. Outcomes associated with Prasugrel were not superior to outcomes associated with Ticagrelor when 30 days to 6 months follow up was done. The clinical safety, side effects and withdrawal parameters were comparable and the results showed no significant difference between these drug groups.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Ticagrelor, Prasugrel, Dual Anti-Platelet therapy, Acute Coronary Syndrome, Coronary Artery Disease.</p> Samala Sai Keerthana, Vaddepally Shravya, Bandi Divya, Subash Chandra Bose, A. Srinivasa Rao A. Srinivasa Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Therapeutic Efficacy of Ursodeoxycholic Acid (Fortibile® tablet) on Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)-induced Hepatic Dysfunction in Experimental Animals <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hepatotoxicity is one of the common side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Scientific study stated that hepatotoxicity is the most serious adverse effects of Aceclofenac.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> In this study, our aim was to investigate the use of Fortibile® tablet containing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in prevention of the hepatotoxic effect and biochemical changes induced by aceclofenac (ACE) in laboratory mice.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (control, UDCA (Fortibile® tablet) 20 mg/kg, aceclofenac (ACE) 50mg/kg, UDCA 20 mg/kg + aceclofenac 50 mg/kg).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Administration of aceclofenac (ACE) showed decline body weight, food consumption, water intake and elevated liver weight in mice whereas treatment with UDCA (Fortibile® tablet) normalized the same as compared with untreated animals. Animals treated with aceclofenac caused elevated activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as total and direct bilirubin level. These elevations in liver enzymes were decreased by combination of aceclofenac with UDCA. On the other hand application of aceclofenac (ACE) on mice caused a significant increase in serum and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) content but significant decrease in glutathione GSH and GPx content. Combine thepary of UDCA and aceclofenac resulted in a significant decrease in MDA, NO content and significantly elevated GSH and GPx content.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It could be concluded that Fortibile® tablet containing Ursodeoxycholic acid acts as an effective hepatoprotective agent against NSAIDs induced liver dysfunction, and this effect might be related to its antioxidant properties. Hepatic functions should be monitored, and the dose should be adjusted during aceclofenac (ACE) therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ursodeoxycholic acid, Aceclofenac, Hepatotoxicity, Liver function test, Oxidative stress,</p> Soumendra Darbar, Srimoyee Saha, Shyamaprasad Chattopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Prospective Observational Study on Risk Factors and Prescribing Patterns of Drugs used in Stroke Patients at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The main aim of the study is to identify the different risk factors, prescribing patterns of medication and rationality of the prescription by observing the management of stroke patients carefully.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A prospective and observational study was carried out for a period of 6 months in an in-patient department of a tertiary care hospital. Patients above 18 years of age, patients of either sex and patients who previously had stroke were included. Children below 18 years, pregnant women, AIDS patients, patients unable to respond to verbal questions with no caretakers and patients with head injury were excluded.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 100 prescriptions were analyzed during the 6 months study period. This was found to be higher in males (79) and females (21). The higher risk with notable occurrence in the age group of 60-79 years (43%). Out of these study populations, (68%) experienced Ischemic stroke and (32%) experienced Hemorrhagic stroke. The major risk factors were Hypertension (62%), alcoholics (41%). Smoking (33%) and Diabetes (24%). Among the 100 prescriptions, Atorvastatin was highly prescribed (96) followed by Pantoprazole (92), Mannitol (64). Out of 100 prescriptions, (67) were rational and (33%) were irrational.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The prescribing patterns of drug should be based on specificity and severity of stroke in order to facilitate rational use of drugs providing optimal care. Early management of hypertension and diabetes may reduce risk of stroke. Cessation of smoking and alcohol place a key role in prevention of stroke.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, hypertension, diabetes.</p> Syed Areefulla Hussainy, Madiha Habeeb, Ayesha Jeelani, Sumaiya Sultana, Mohammed Mohiuddin Meeran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Method Development and Validation for Multicomponent Analysis of Rosuvastatin Calcium and Losartan Potassium in Bulk Drug by RP-HPLC <p>A simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Rosuvastatin calcium and Losartan potassium in bulk form. Chromatographic conditions included the&nbsp; Column C-18 (Shim-pack) 250 x 4.6 mm, particle size 5 µm , mobile phase acetonitrile,&nbsp; methanol and water pH 3 (orthophosphoric acid) in the ratio 20:25:55 recorded&nbsp; at 233 nm. The retention time were found to be&nbsp;&nbsp; 3.55 and 4.64 min and average percentage recovery 99.42% and 99.63% for Rosuvastatin calcium and Losartan potassium respectively. The proposed method was found to comply with ICH guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>Rosuvastatin calcium, Losartan potassium, RP-HPLC, accuracy and linearity.</p> Pramod Kumar, Amar Deep Ankalgi, Pooja Kaushal, Mahendra Singh Ashawat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Lannea grandis (Dennst.) Engl. Leaves Extracts <p>Medicinal plants can serve as a prominent source of bioactive secondary metabolites which can exert beneficial effects to combat against many human diseases. <em>Lannea grandis</em> (Dennst.)&nbsp;Engl, a member of Anacardiaceae family has several applications in the ethnomedical practices. In this study, the ethanol extract of <em>L. grandis</em> leaf (ELG) along with its petroleum-ether and chloroform fractions were subjected to phytochemical analysis along with the evaluation of antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, and sedative activities using standard protocols. Phytochemical screening was performed according to common phytochemical tests. Antimicrobial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method where the ethanol extract of <em>L. grandis</em> showed significant activity against tested bacterial species (zone of inhibitions = 10.8±0.85 to 13.8±1.84 mm). The same extract also exhibited the highest antifungal activity against <em>Blastomyces dermatitidis</em> (zone of inhibition = 20.5±0.35 mm). The chloroform fraction of <em>L. grandis</em> at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight produced a significant (p&lt;0.05) anti-diarrheal effect with 40.69% inhibition of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. During sedative activity assay in mice, the plant extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight produced mild reduction in the time of onset of sleep and increased the length of the sleeping time induced by a sedative, phenobarbitone. In conclusion, the plant <em>L. grandis</em> can be considered as a base for the development of new drugs and phytomedicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Lannea grandis</em>, phytochemical, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, sedative activity.</p> Sharmin Akhter, Sarrin Shahadat, Zilly Homa, Md Ruhul Kuddus, M Mohi Uddin Chowdhury, Mohammed Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of the curative role, Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity of some dietary spices on carrageenan induced paw edema in albino Wistar rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Inflammation is a major burning problem worldwide and billions of individuals are affected. Some of the spices used daily in Algerian cuisine have been known to possess major anti-inflammatory effects. Turmeric, red pepper, ginger, cinnamon and cumin &nbsp;etc. are a few of the wide spectrum of spices used in Algeria.</p> <p>The aim of the study was to investigate the antiinflammatory effect&nbsp; and anti actvity of some dietary spices in carrageenan induced models of inflammation on Wistar&nbsp; rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Albino wistar rats were divided into four groups. Inflammation was induced on the animal by injecting the right hand paw with carrageenan (0.1 ml of 1%). Group 1&nbsp; was fed with food and water and&nbsp; treated with carrageenan (control) whereas group 2 and&nbsp; 3 treated with different doses (100 and 200 mg/kg/bw) of aqueous extract of some dietary spices with carrageenan, respectively. Group 4&nbsp; treated with standard drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg b.w., reference drug for inflammation), once for 24 hrs.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The content of total phenolic was 137.2±21.6 mg/g and flavonoids 122.3±5.8 mg/g. After 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min, the data indicate that&nbsp; some dietary spices 100 and 200 mg/kg was significantly effective reducing paw edema volumes induced by carrageenan compared to control (p &lt;0.01). The levels of serum pro-inflammatory white blood cells, neutrophile, lymphocyte, monocyte,&nbsp; eosinophile, total protein and protein c reactive and total cephalin KADIN&nbsp; and platelts in the control group were significantly increased by carrageenan injection compared with the normal group. The rats pretreated with some spices 100 and 200 mg/kg had significantly lower levels of pro-inflammatory to compare control group. The paw edema in carrageenan-induced rats was considerably reduced by treating with 100 and 200&nbsp; mg/kg aqueous extract of some dietary spices when compared to the untreated&nbsp; rats (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion&nbsp;:</strong> The present results clearly demonstarted that carrageenan significantly increased paw edema whereas some dietary treated rats significantly decreased the paw edema. The study underlines the importance of some of the frequently used spices (Turmeric, red pepper, ginger, cinnamon and cumin)&nbsp; in the treatment of inflammation.</p> Khaoula Bouaoud, Noreddine Menadi, Mohammed Zairi, Sofiane Bouazza, Hadjer Bekhadda, Asmaa Meraou, Amina Benali, Ilies Bensaid, Hicham MAI, Mahmoud Benali, Abbassia Demmouche ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Optimization of Process Parameters for Formulation of Fluvastatin Tablet by Using Dry Granulation Method <p>The manufacturing process of the tablet is a very complex process; it can be affected by the several process parameters or variables. The aim of this study was to understand and optimize the process parameters such as mixing, granulation, lubrication and tablets compression processes using quality by design (QbD) approach for a model Anti- Hyperlipidemic drug Fluvastatin sodium. During the processes there are several parameters which may influence or affect product quality. So the main objective of present work was to identify various process parameters and optimize this parameter, for the formulation of good quality product which needs to optimize Blending time, Roller force, Compression force and machine speed. A scale up batch was taken to evaluate and optimize the parameters. Critical quality attributes (CQA) such as flow behavior, granules parameters, Blend uniformity, tablet appearance, effect on tablet quality like physical appearance (surface, weight etc.) and tablet dissolution time as well as drug release.&nbsp; The test results of following parameters at various in-process phases are complies with the specified limits and finished product sample results were found to be within specified limits. This study results assures the manufacturing process is reproducible, robust and will yield consistent product, which meets specification.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Process Parameters, Quality by Design, Fluvastatin, Granulation, Blending, Compression etc,.&nbsp;</p> Nikhil Arun Shete, Vishwajeet Swami, Vaibhav Kulkarni, Gajanan Paratkar, Rahul Mohan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Isolation and Screening of Fungal Culture Isolated From Algerian Soil for the Production of Cellulase and Xylanase <p>Lignocellulolytic enzymes constitute a very large group of extracellular proteins secreting by fungi who is ecologically involved in the degradation of a variety of complex materials, a property that is attributed to a battery of enzymes produced by these microorganisms like cellulases and xylanases who are of significant industrial value and relevance. Forty fungal isolated from rich soil in organic matter were screened for lignocellulolytic enzymes production, its organized on the basis of their hydrolytic potential of cellulose and xylan. The isolates strains presented enzymatic activity which was ranked as follows: cellulolytic (56%), xylanolytic (44%). Some selected strains that produce high levels of enzymes (cellulase, xylanase) grown in submerged fermentation (SmF) and were quantitatively evaluated. The fermentation experiments were carried out in shake flasks. The highest CMCase (5,10 IU/ml) and xylanase (98,25 IU/ml) activities were obtained from <em>Trichoderma </em>sp strain Mtr6 isolate.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Fungi,<em> Trichoderma </em>sp, lignocellulolytic enzymes, soil, screening, organic matter.</p> Ouahiba GAHFIF, Yasmina SOUAGUI, Zahra AZZOUZ, Sadrati NOUARI, Zahir AMGHAR Zahir AMGHAR, Nawel BOUCHERBA, Mouloud KECHA, Said BENALLAOUA, Azzeddine Bettache ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Acute toxicity and central and peripheral analgesic activity of flowers and leaves essential oils of Asteriscus graveolens from South-West Algeria <p>The objective of this study is the evaluation of the central and peripheral analgesic activity of the leaves and flowers Essential Oils (EOs) of <em>Asteriscus graveolens</em> as well as their acute toxicity. The pharmacological tests were performed using an animal model. Acute toxicity was determined by Lorke's method. Central analgesic activity was evaluated by the hot plate test, and peripheral analgesic activity was conducted by the writhing test. The results showed that the EOs of <em>A. graveolens</em> from both organs are weakly toxic. For the central analgesic activity, the results revealed that leaf EO have a remarkable antinociceptive effect compared to flowers EO with a maximum latency time of the animals on the hot plate on the order of 22.5 seconds. Finally, the peripheral analgesic activity revealed a maximum inhibition of abdominal writhing of 99% for flowers EO and 96% for leaves EO.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Asteriscus graveolens</em>, analgesic activity, toxicity.&nbsp;</p> Keddar Youcef Benaissa, Aicha Megherbi, Mohammed El-Amin Said, Abdelfettah Benyamina, Fouzia Toumi, Zouaouia Bettayeb ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Prospective Observational Studies on Drug Utilization Evaluation and Rational Use of Corticosteroids in Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> Corticosteroids are widely prescribed Drugs in Hospitals, forming a part of standard treatment of modern medicine for a wide range of diseases, associated with inflammation and immune activation. Apart from beneficial effects they also produce number of adverse effects. In the present study, Prospective Observational studies on DUE (Drug utilization evaluation) and rationality of Corticosteroids has been Performed.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To Investigate the Drug utilization evaluation, Prescription pattern and Rationality of corticosteroids in various department of tertiary care teaching hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A prospective observational study was conducted on 100 patients receiving corticosteroids in the various departments of Osmania general Hospital, Hyderabad. Patients prescribed corticosteroids therapy was included in the study. Exclusion of those patients with age less than 18, psychiatric disease, pregnant women and patients not willing to sign on consent form.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> This study included 100 Patients out of which 68 were Male and 32 were female. In Age wise distribution, 15&nbsp; Patients prescribed with corticosteroid in age group 18-28 years, 20&nbsp; patients in 29- 38 years, 12 in 32-48 years, 16&nbsp; in 49-58 years, 22 in 59-68 years, 11&nbsp; in 69-78 years and 4&nbsp; in above 80 years. This data showed that commonly male populations are more prone to diseases. As per the demographic data our finding shows that Budesonide was the most frequent prescribed corticosteroid (31.75%) followed by Hydrocortisone (26.19%), Dexamethasone (15.08%), Prednisolone 13.49%, Betamethasone (7.94%), Methyl prednisolone (5.56%).</p> <p>Out of 100 prescriptions total 10 ADRs and 25 Drug interactions were detected in this study. The majority of drug interactions were minor 24 followed by major 1.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The Prescription pattern of corticosteroids was found to be rational as there is no Major drug interaction. Commonly geriatric population was more prone to diseases, for which steroids were used. Hence close observation is required to ensure safety, effectiveness and well-balanced therapeutic management with corticosteroids, both patients and prescribers should be more aware of the appropriate dose, dosage regimen, Drug - Drug interactions, ADRs and overall guidelines for corticosteroids prescribing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Corticosteroids, Drug utilization evaluation, Prescription pattern.</p> Syeda Masarrath Unissa, Sana Kareem, Sumaiya Faheem Ahmed, Syed Imran Ul Haq, S Ahmedullah Hussaini Quadri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Scientific Baseline Information for the Potential Use of Hibiscus surattensis L against Malaria: Phytochemistry and Biological Studies <p><strong>Background and aim</strong>: <em>Hibiscus surattensis </em>L. is a medicinal plant widely used traditionally in Benin to treat malaria. This study was designed to investigate antiplasmodial activity, hemolytic power, acute toxicity, antioxidant activity and phytochemical content of <em>H. surattensis</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Bioassay-guided isolation approach was adopted and extracts and fractions collected were continuously tested <em>in</em> <em>vitro</em> against Chloroquine-sensitive and field isolate strains of <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> by immune-dosage of <em>Plasmodium</em> lactate dehydrogenase. Hemolytic effect and acute toxicity of extracts were evaluated respectively on human erythrocytes and according to OECD guideline N°423. 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxyde radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging methods were used to investigate antioxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Results and conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>The best antiplasmodial activity was obtained with ethanolic extract of <em>H. surattensis</em> L. against field isolate (IC<sub>50</sub> = 5.03±0.31 µg/mL) and Chloroquine -sensitive (IC<sub>50 </sub>= 7.55±0.59 µg/mL) whereas aqueous extract exhibited moderate activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanolic extract shows progressive decrease of the antiplasmodial activity. Both extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, hemolytic power less than 1%. No mortality of rats was recorded with ethanolic extract at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Flavonoids, anthraquinones, coumarins, and triterpenes are present in both extracts with tannins in the ethanolic extract. In summary, the extracts of <em>H. surattensis</em> have interesting antiplasmodial and antioxidant properties probably resulting from a synergetic action of their secondary metabolites, without toxicity effect on rats and human erythrocytes. These findings strengthen the traditional use of <em>H. surattensis</em> as antimalarial plants.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Hibiscus surattensis</em>; antiplasmodial; antioxidant; toxicity; phytoconstituents.</p> Gerard Hodevé TIKO, Adandé MEDJIGBODO, Rafiou ADAMOU, Abdou Madjid Olatoundé AMOUSSA, Luc Salako DJOGBENOU, Latifou LAGNIKA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Polymeric Nanoparticle by Nano-Precipitation Method <p>Acyclovir is also known as Acyclovir, this drug is used for treatment of viral infection, particularly for treatment of herpes simplex viral infection. These are taken for month during treatment of herpes simplex viral infection. These are showing the action against all herps virus family. The acyclovir is poorly water-soluble drug. Due to that main aim is to increase the solubility of acyclovir in other solvent. The bioavailability of acyclovir is very less about (15-35%) because it has less oral route absorption. Due to that the acyclovir are given in intravenous route. When acyclovir is taken in oral route, the peak plasma concentration occurs after 1-2 h. The acyclovir having 9-33% of plasma protein binding. The BCS class of acyclovir are Class third (high solubility and Low permeability). Due to that acyclovir are formulate in the form of nanoparticle. Chitosan are the polymers which are used for the formulation of nanoparticle. The chitosan is found to be compatible with acyclovir. Formulation of acyclovir nanoparticle was done by Nano-precipitation method. Many evaluation tests performed during the formulation of Acyclovir nanoparticle mainly zeta sizer is use for the determination of particle size, zeta potential and PDI (poly disperse index) also performed evaluation of loading efficiency and % Drug entrapment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Acyclovir, Chitosan, Zeta sizer and Nanoparticle.</p> Mahesh G Umbarkar, Pooja Sudhakar Rindhe, Shivkanya Sanjay Chandrawanshi, Manoj J. Chavan, Vijay Manaskar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Histo-Epidemiological Profile of Endometrial Cancer in the Oran Region <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the present study is to describe the epidemiological, histopathological and therapeutic profile of endometrial cancers in the region of Oran.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We conducted a retrospective study by exploring the medical files of 25 female patients diagnosed of endometrial cancer and treated at the level of the EHU November 1, 1954’s medical oncology department in Oran during the period from January 2015 to December 2019.</p> <p>For data collection, we used a structured exploitation sheet to obtain necessary information. Variables were analyzed using SPSS Software Version 20.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The median age of patients was 59 years with extremes ranging from 42 to 83 years. More than 56% of our patients were over 50 years old, 40% of the patients were nulliparous and 80% postmenopausal. The average age of menarche was 14.09 ± 1.44 years with extremes ranging from 12 to 17 years. The indication for anatomopathological examination was dominated by metrorrhagia (80%).</p> <p>Histopathologically, endometrioid adenocarcinoma was the most common at 75% of cases. We also note that 62.5% were classified in stage I and 37.5% in stage II. Myometrium infiltration was observed in 66.67% of cases. The basic treatment for endometrial cancer remains surgical.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> At the end of this work, we concluded that this pathology remains essentially that of postmenopausal women. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma was the most common histologic type. This study also revealed many risk factors for endometrial cancer, such as advanced age, hypertension and nulliparity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cancer, Endometrium, Epidemiology, Anathomopathology, Risk factors</p> Anissa FIZAZI, Imene BOUZOUINA, Assala Nesrine BOUZIANI, Amina BELHADJ, Sonia SEDDIKI, Tewfik SAHRAOUI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Anti-Anaphylactic Activity of methanolic extract of Momordica charantia in Experimental Animals <p>Anaphylaxis is a syndrome that can be fatal, which is seen due to systemic release of inflammatory mediators. Antigen and Antibody reaction is usually a trigger in the body to go into anaphylactic shock. In this study, anaphylaxis induced by egg albumin in the rats. The efficiency of MC (<em>Momordica charantia</em>) against anaphylaxis was evaluated. The standard drug used was Dexamethasone. The MC extract is given in doses 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.</p> <p>Results: The MC extract was found to be effective (p&lt;0.01) inhibitor of egg albumin induced anaphylactic reaction.</p> <p>Conclusion: From this study, we can conclude that <em>Momordica charantia </em>fruits have good anti-anaphylactic activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anaphylaxis, Momordica charantia, Egg albumin, Passive paw anaphylaxis, Dexamethasone.</p> Shubhangi Dhananjay Deshpande, Swati Kolhe, Sachin Tembhurne ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Food constituents for inhibition of BabA of Helicobacter pylori <p><em>Helicobacter pylori</em> causes several gastric pathogeneses to human, nowadays the bacterium developed incredible drug and antibiotic resistance. The bacterium starts its activities by attachment to gastric epithelia via BabA as the main player in the\is process. The study was carried out to find/discover food constituents as inhibitors. Five molecules were obtained from the screening process, 2_3_4_5_6_Penta_O_acetyl_D_glucose, N2_N2_Dimethylguanosine, 5__Methylthioadenosine, Glyceryl_5_hydroxydecanoate, Monoisopropyl_citrate , in addition to two drugs Rivoglitazone and Tiapirinol not used for&nbsp; <em>Helicobacter pylori</em> before. The molecules were docked with considerable binding affinities with different types of interactions. The molecules were checked for the safety of different aspects, they are of good synthetic accessibility and in agreement with the Lipinski rule of 5 which is essential for Helicobacter therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Helicobacter pylori</em>, food constituents, BabA inhibition, SBDD</p> Zahra M. Al-Khafaji, Aaisha B. Mahmood, Marium B. Mahmood ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 13:24:46 -0500 Inhibitory Effect of Xanthine Oxidase from Tamus communis Roots Extracts/Fraction <p>In the course of our phytochemical studies of plant <em>Tamus communis L., </em>methanol soluble extract (EMeOH) (138 g) was chromatographed on a silica gel column. The column was eluted with chloroform and then with chloroform /methanol mixtures of increasing polarity. A total of 52 fractions (400 ml each) were collected and grouped according to their TLC behaviour into 6 main fractions (I-VI).&nbsp; Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined by a colorimetric method. Values varied between 73.143±0.009 and 29.214±0.003 equivalent Gallic acid/g lyophilisate. All the extracts showed inhibitory properties on xanthine oxidase, the IC<sub>50 </sub>ranges from 0.029±0.017 mg/ml to 0.237±0.026 mg/ml. The extracts exhibited an additional superoxide scavenging capacity by using both enzymatic methods and IC<sub>50</sub> values ​​range from 0.039±0.023 mg/ml to 0.141±0.086 mg/ml. These results show that <em>Tamus communis L. </em>extracts have strong anti-oxidant effects and may have some clinical benefits.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Xanthine oxidase, Antioxidant, Superoxide scavenger,<em> Tamus communis L.</em></p> Fatima ZERARGUI, Karima SAFFIDINE, Thoraya GUEMMAZ, Abderrahmane BAGHIANI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Alchornea cordifolia Leaf Crude Extracts and Cephalosporin Antibiotics on Some Pathogenic Clinical Isolates <p>Comparative antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Alchornea cordifolia and some Cephalosporin antibiotics of different generations available in Uy, LGA of Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria were evaluated using macro dilution assay to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the plant aqueouse and ethanol leaf extracts and of the Cephalosporin antibiotics against some pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. Results: The extraction yielded 59.9g for aqueouse leaf extract (ALE) and 74.10 g of the ethanol leaf extract. The MIC of the leaf extracts ranging from (1.953 mg/mL - 15.625 mg/ mL) and MBC ranging from (3.906 mg/mL – 62.50 mg/mL). The cephalosporin antibiotics; Ceftriaxone (Chupet<sup>®)</sup> MIC ranging from (0.0078-0.25 mg/mL), MBC (0.0312 mg/mL – 0.25 mg/mL), Cephalexin (Sporidex<sup>®</sup>) MIC ranging from (0.009766 mg/ mL - 0.625 mg/ mL), MBC (0.01953 mg/ mL -2.50 mg/ mL) and Cefuroxime with MIC ranging from (0.0078 mg/mL-0.25 mg/mL) and MBC (1.25 mg/mL - 2.5 mg/mL). Antimicrobial substances are considered as bactericidal agent when the ratio MBC/MIC ≤ 4 and bacteriostatic when the ratio MBC/MIC is &gt; 4. The antimicrobial activities evaluated increased in the following order of potency; A. cordifolia leaf extracts &gt; Ceftriaxone &gt; Cefalexin &gt; Cefuroxime considering the values of MBC/MIC.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Antimicrobial activities, bacteriostatic, bactericidal, cephalosporin, comparative.</em></p> A. A. Agboke, C. N. Nwosu, D. O. Obindo, M. H. Ekanem, E. V. Edet, I. F. Ubak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 17 Oct 2020 00:08:04 -0500 Formulation, characterization and evaluation of Tramadol Hydrochloride Hydrogel <p>The challenge in the formulation of novel systems for TDDS is to identify technologies and formulation excipients which simultaneously optimize drug permeation. Our main goal was to design and evaluate a recent alternative for the administration of tramadol HCl. Performed the preformulation study as different evaluation parameters Physiochemical Studies, Solubility Determination, Partition Coefficient, and Preparation of Calibration Curve simultaneously Preparation &amp; Characterization of Hydrogel Formulation Homogeneity, pH Measurement, Drug Content, Viscosity, Spreadability, <em>In-Vitro</em> Permeation, FT-IR Studies<strong>.</strong> Results revealed that the present investigation, tramadol was successfully incorporated into different gel formulations. Among all gel formulations, tramadol gel (F13) proved to be the formula of choice, showing good characteristics and controlling the drug release for long period of time. Gel formulation F13 could be very promising and innovative topical alternative for pain management and arthritis and play a vital role in drug efficiency. These findings may open new avenues for the treatment through dermal by local application of tailored gel. However, further preclinical and clinical studies are recommended to support its efficiency claims in humans.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tramadol HCl; <em>In-Vitro</em> Permeation; Hydrogel; FT-IR Studies; Characterization</p> Vipin Kumar, Kapil Malviya, Lavakesh Kumar Omray ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 22 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Co-Trimoxazole Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reaction: A Challenging Diagnosis <p><strong>Introduction</strong>; Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome is a life-threatening reaction with a mortality rate of 10-20%. Usual reaction period is 2 to 6 week after the first intake of drug. The present case is an example of late presentation of the symptoms which made the diagnosis difficult.</p> <p><strong>Clinical case: </strong>We describe a case of 51 year old male with known history of Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Tuberculosis (TB) presented with complaints of fever, generalised scaling, oedema, eosinophilia and elevated liver enzymes. The symptoms started 45 days back but was then misdiagnosed and treated as exfoliative dermatitis from a local hospital. The symptoms aggravated since 5 days and were admitted in our hospital. Drug reaction was least suspected as he has been taking the Antiretroviral (ART) and Anti-tubercular (ATT) drugs since 3 to 4 months. But later on culprit drug was identified to be Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim and was soon discontinued. Significant improvement was seen with steroid, antihistamines and other topical agents.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Timely recognition of DRESS Syndrome, prompt discontinuation of culprit drug and symptomatic management are imperative in a better prognosis. It must also be noted that the latency period can be as long as 105 days after the first intake of the drug, rather than the usual presentation period of 2-6 week.</p> M Sreehari, M M Sana, Cyril Tom ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Hepatotoxicity Induced by Anti-Tubercular Drugs Therapy: A Case Report <p>Anti-tubercular therapy induced liver injury (ATTILI) is the most important risk for the past many years. Many pre-existing factors and conditions like persisting liver injury, female gender, alcohol abuse etc. are important risk factors for the ATT induce liver injury. I read many case reports and literature review for the drugs induce liver injury, and concluded the results, ATT drugs are the most responsible for the liver injury during the therapy periods. The present case was 42-year-old male patient and known case of pulmonary tuberculosis, patients were on the ATT drugs therapy in the last 14 days. After few days of therapy, he produced signs of vomiting (multiple episode), fever (high grade), abdomen pain, coughing, loss of appetite, epigastric discomforts &amp; generalized weakness. On general examination the patient was found to produce signs of Jaundice with yellowish appearance of the sclera. Pulmonologist had firstly withdrawal the anti-tubercular drugs therapy and started the modified anti-tubercular drugs therapy. As a Clinical pharmacist we advise the patients &amp; patients relatives, proper monitoring of liver and renal function test should also be carried out by the health care professional specialist from time to time in order to avoid critical situations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anti-tubercular therapy, Anti-tubercular therapy induced liver injury, Pulmonologist, Hepatotoxicity.</p> Rohit Bangwal, Mashud Mohd. Essar Hussain, Saurabh Saklani, Prashant Mathur, Yogesh Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Review on Antityrosinase Activity of Some Indian Medicinal Plants and their Phytoconstituents <p>Tyrosinase (polyphenolic oxidase) is a multifunctional and copper containing enzyme. Tyrosinase is an enzyme which is responsible for melanin biosynthesis which is responsible for color of the skin. Melanin is synthesised in melanocyte cells by melanogenesis process.&nbsp; Melanogenesis protects skin surface from harmful ultraviolet radiations. Melanin is mainly synthesized in plants, micro organisms and mammalian cells. Melanin pigment is responsible for hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. When melanin is present in very less amount it causes local vitiligo and posttraumatic hypopigmentation. When melanin is present in very less amount it causes local vitiligo and posttraumatic hypopigmentation. Abnormal amount of melanin deposit in the specific sites of skin causes abnormal skin colored patches like solar lentigos, chloasma, freckles, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation etc<strong>.</strong> Tyrosinase is also responsible for color changes in fruits due to enzymatic reactions. Tyrosinase inhibitor compounds are used in cosmetics, food, agriculture science and also used in remedy for imbalance in pigmentations. Some Indian herbal plants and agents like Aloe barbedensis, Crocus sativus, Curcuma longa, Camellia sinensis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycine max, Nelumbo nucifera, Hemidesmus indicus, Vitis Vinifera, Broussonetia papyrifera<strong>,</strong> resorcinol<em>,</em> arbutin, kojic acid, hydroquinone and ascorbic acid have antityrosinase enzymatic activity. So these plants and inhibitory agents are used in cosmetic industries due to their tyrosinase inhibitory effects or antityrosinase activity or antihyperpigmentation effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Anti-hyperpimentation, Tyrosinase Inhibitor, Melanin, Herbal drugs.</p> Ruchi Gupta, Rajiv Saxena, Archana Patidar, Yashu Chourasiya, Neelesh Malviya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Overview of Covid 19 and Unani formulation Tiryaq-e-Wabai <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is arguably the biggest health crisis the world has faced in 21st century. It is an infectious disease and declared pandemic by the World Health Organization. It is a pandemic disease of modern time with unique and rapid transmission rate and affected almost all the nations without respecting any border. It’s a novel infection which is caused by SARS CoV-2 with Serious Clinical manifestation i.e. Fever, Cough, Cold, Respiratory distress further may result into Death. There is no definite therapeutic drug or vaccine available for COVID-19 so far despite numerous series of experimental and clinical research. Research is in progress on therapeutic efficacy of various agents including antimalarials (Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine), antiviral drugs, and convalescent serum of recovered patients. Unani system of medicine is one of the traditional systems of medicine which is being explored for providing preventive, supportive and rehabilitative care to patients. Unani system of medicine has a detailed description of drugs that are utilized in many infectious diseases, including respiratory infections. Immune response is essential to eliminate virus and to preclude disease progression to severe stages. Therefore, strategies to boost immune response are certainly important. Therefore, it is important to summarize the evidence regarding the preventive measures, control options such as immunostimulator and prophylactic treatment in Unani medicine against Covid- 19. This review summarizes various pharmacological actions of Unani formulation Tiryaq e wabai in unani literature and various reported pharmacological activities which can possibly provide prevention, control and reduction of complications of this deadly disease.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Unani medicine, Covid 19, immune response, Tiryaq e Wabai</p> Asim Ali Khan, Zeba Afrin, Pradeep Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Repurposable Drug Candidates are Potential Therapeutic Target against Global SARS-CoV-2 Crisis <p>This review provides a pharmacological approach to combat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on two comprehensive denominations which could be specifically intended for viral replication process by either inhibiting essential genomic viral enzymes or preventing viral entry to human cells. These denominations focused on immune therapies either to improve innate antiviral immune responses or to reduce impairment triggered by underactive inflammatory reactions. A variety of drug candidates are available which can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication, comprising serine protease inhibitors: Transmembrane Orotease/Serine Subfamily member 2 (TMPRSS2), camostat mesylate, nafamostat mesylate, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. This review is also concerned with identifying drugs and ongoing clinical trials with their mechanisms of action against SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, monoclonal antibody, off-label antiviral drugs, nucleotide analog remdesivir and broad-spectrum antiviral drugs also could be used as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), dexamethasone, and antiviral phytochemicals that are currently reachable, can prevent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic morbidity and mortality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19; Antiviral drugs; NSAIDs; ACE2; Clinical trials</p> Md. Siddikur Rahman, Fahmida Begum Mina, Sabuj Das, Mutasim Billah, Sumon Karmakar Sumon Karmakar, Alam Khan, Sharmin Akhtar, Uzzal Kumar Acharjee, Md. Faruk Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 The Pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P-450 and its Effect on Drug Metabolism <p>Cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzyme plays an essential role in the oxidation of most drugs, and thus it can affect the toxicity and efficacy of many medications. Factors that influence the function and presence of cytochrome have a key impact on the outcomes of therapy. More specifically, characteristics of cytochrome pharmacogenetics and procedures of cytochrome enzymes induction and inhibition can greatly influence the rate of drug biotransformation and the rate of elimination. So, an understanding of genetic variants which are associated with drug responses and illnesses could improve and enhance the outcome of treatment. Clinical data in genetic tests may be useful in order to develop methods for assessing genetic risks. Positively, genetic tests for monogenic sicknesses have already proven to be a useful test and any changes may trigger a new field of personalized drug. This review will look at the influence of pharmacogenetics in drug metabolism and the importance of using personal genetic data in achieving optimal therapy and in preventing any possible adverse effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pharmacogenetics, Biotransformation, CYP-450</p> DIA AHAK M BEREWELA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Solid Lipid Nanoparticle for the Delivery of Docetaxel: A Review <p>Solid lipid nanoparticles are the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, clinical medicine and research.&nbsp; Due to its solid state it has greater stability than other nanocarrier systems. There are several other advantages like sustained release, improves bioavaibility and delivery of poorly water soluble drugs, helps in control of several pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs due to which use of SLN is increasing day by day. Various techniques can be used for the formulation of SLN i.e. solvent evaporation, microemulsification technique, high pressure homogenization and supercritical fluid method. It has several applications likes it is use in gene transfer therapy, also use in different drug delivery systmer like oral and pulmonary drug delivery system. Due to several advantages SLNs are widely used in chemotherapy for the treatment of the cancer. The use of SLN for the delivery of Docetaxel to tumor site have several benefits likes site specific delivery, less toxic effect, more cell cytotoxicity and more bioavaibility which leads to decrease in the dosing frequency.&nbsp; Docetaxel is an anticancer agent extracted from plant <em>Taxus Baccata</em> which is widely used in chemotherapy to treat cancer. This article contains the detail information of about the advantages, disadvantages, different method of preparation and several SLN loaded with Docetaxel.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Solid lipid nanoparticles, drug delivery, clinical medicine, poorly water soluble drugs</p> Pranav Agrawal, Amol Tatode, Milind Umekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Microbial Potential of Plumbago zeylanica L.: A Review <p><em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> L. (Pz) is one of the most important medicinal plant belonging to the family Plumbaginaceae. It is a perennial shrub, growing throughout India and most places of Sri Lanka. It contains various bioactive compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, naphthoquinones, glycoside, saponins, steroids, tri-terpenoids, coumarins, phenolic compounds etc. Of all the chemical constituents, plumbagin is the principal active compound. Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone-C11H8O3) is primarily present in roots in higher amounts with only about 1% in the whole plant. The literature reveals that the root and root bark have a wider claim in traditional medicines against various diseases as a memory enhancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, wound healing, anti-malarial, anti-infertility, anticancer, blood coagulation, and anti-oxidant activities. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of this plant.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>Plumbago zeylanica; Sheetraj; Chitrak; Anti-inflammatory; Antimicrobial; Traditional uses</p> Mohd Aleem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Pharmacology, Pharmaceutics and Clinical Use of Aspirin: A Narrative Review <p><strong>Background:</strong> Aspirin is one of the most frequently used and cheapest drugs in medicine. Since its first synthesis in 1897, several medicinal roles and mechanisms of action of Aspirin have become apparent, the latest among these being its role in cancer prevention and treatment.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> We present a review of Aspirin's biochemistry and pharmacology, as well as the clinical use of Aspirin. The communiqué also suggests possible strategies for maximizing the gain of Aspirin as a wonder-drug of the future.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The &nbsp;literature&nbsp; search&nbsp; strategy&nbsp; covered&nbsp; printed&nbsp; and&nbsp; online&nbsp; sources,&nbsp; including&nbsp; manual&nbsp; library search (PubMed), Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library. For papers written in English and published in the last ten years.&nbsp; A&nbsp; systematic&nbsp; analysis&nbsp; of&nbsp; available&nbsp; data&nbsp; was&nbsp; subsequently&nbsp; performed&nbsp; based&nbsp; on&nbsp; the review questions. An&nbsp; estimated&nbsp; 155&nbsp; articles&nbsp; were&nbsp; found&nbsp; online,&nbsp; and&nbsp; twenty-eight&nbsp; articles&nbsp; utilized&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; final analysis.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> Aspirin belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with a wide range of pharmacological activities, including analgesic, antipyretic, and antiplatelet properties. Discovery of antiplatelet effects led to the increasing use of Aspirin as an anti-thrombotic agent in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases from the 1980s, and firm evidence supporting its usefulness has continued to accumulate. Aspirin irreversibly inhibits platelet function by acetylating cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of a potent platelet stimulator, thromboxane A2. The inhibition of COX-2 by Aspirin forms the basis of its anticipated role in preventing colorectal cancer and Alzheimer's disease and the inhibition of the progression of these diseases. It has been pointed out that the incidence of cardiovascular events tends to be high among patients who are Aspirin resistant, but the reason for this increased incidence remains unclear.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The emerging future interest is to accrue evidence in favor of Aspirin as the novel therapeutic drug for combating severe acute inflammation and thrombosis associated with the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Notably, a randomized clinical trial, to test a range of potential treatments for COVID-19, includes low-dose Aspirin as anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Aspirin; Anti-platelet; Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug; Pharmaceutic; Pharmacodynamic; Pharmacokinetic.</p> Bamidele Johnson Alegbeleye, Oke-Oghene Philomena Akpoveso, Rana Kahdim Mohammed, Bernard Yeboah-Asiamah Asare ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 An Updated Review on Nanoparticle Based Approach for Nanogel Drug Delivery System <p>Nanocomposite hydrogels or nanogels (a nanoparticles composed of a hydrogel) are nanomaterial filled, swollen nanosized networks of deliquescent or amphiphilic compound chains. It may be developed by drug - polymer interactions and to create 3D advanced networks. Nanogel may be ready by many strategies just like the particle gelation, Inverse mini emulsion, Dispersion, Chemical cross linking, fabrication of biopolymers and so on. It can be characterized by SEM, DSC, FTIR, Drug content, Particle size, Zeta potential and drug efficiency.&nbsp; Further, it can be evaluated by in vitro drug release and in vivo study in suitable animal modeling. In this review article, we have focused on basic methodology of nanogels, evaluation terms, their application in industry with future prospects for the researchers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Nanogel; methods of nanogel preparation; evaluation parameters and their applications.</p> Chandrika Chouhan, Rudra Pratap Singh Rajput, Rishabh Sahu, Poonam Verma, Suman Sahu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Review of an Ayurvedic Polyherbal Formulation Mustadi Kwatha <p><em>Mustadi Kwatha </em>is a well-known <em>Ayurvedic</em> formulation. It is a widely prescribed drug and is used in all types of <em>Prameha</em> (Diabetes mellitus), <em>Mutrakrichha</em> (Urinary System related disease) and <em>Santarpanjanya Vyadhi</em> (disease due to over nutrition). Several studies have suggested that <em>Mustadi Kwatha</em> possesses anti-hyperlipidemic, anti- hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant activity. The present review explains the pharmacological potential of <em>Mustadi Kwatha.</em> In addition, this study investigates the pharmacological activities of each of the ingredients used in the formulation. It is believed that this review helps the researcher to further explore about this important <em>Ayurvedic</em> formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Mustadi Kwatha,</em> Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperlipidemia, Obesity, Ayurvedic Polyherbal Formulation.</p> Hari Khanal, Ram Kishor Joshi, Abhishek Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Exploring Recent Advances in Nanotherapeutics <p>Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding field, encompassing the development of materials in a size range of 5-200 nanometers (nm). The applications of nanotechnology to drug delivery opened the floodgates to create novel therapeutics and diagnostics which have changed the landscape of pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Advances in nanotechnology are being utilized in medicine for therapeutic drug delivery and treatment of various diseases and disorders. The biodegradable nanoparticle/nanocarriers, in which drug is dissolved and entrapped are specially designed to absorb the drug and to protect it against chemical and enzymatic degradation. The important role to design these nanostructures as a delivery system is to release pharmacologically active molecules for site-specific action with an accurate dose. In recent times, several biodegradable polymeric nanostructures have been developed with an innate capacity to target specific organs/tissue to deliver the drug. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems use polymers or lipids as carriers for drugs. Newer polymers engineered to achieve temporal and spatial drug delivery form the mainstay of these systems. In nanotechnology, being tiny molecules of immunotherapeutic have many advantages over biological drugs regarding complexity, tissue penetration, manufacturing cost, stability and shelf life, which is one of dominating therapy in the current research field. The present review gives details about the recent developments of nanostructure drug delivery systems and their applications.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> liposomes, polymeric micelles, gold nanoparticles, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, aptamers, quantum dots.</p> Monica RP Rao, Ashwini Sonawane, Sharwari Sapate, Kshitija Abhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Creams: A Review on Classification, Preparation Methods, Evaluation and its Applications <p>Creams are considered an important part of cosmetic product as topical preparations from time immemorial due to their ease of application to the skin and also their removal. From cosmetic purposes, Pharmaceutical creams have a variety of applications such as cleansing, beautifying, altering appearance, moisturizing etc. to skin protection against bacterial, fungal infections as well as healing cuts, burns, wounds on the skin. These semi solid preparations are safe to use by the public and society. The human skin is easily vulnerable to injury but it has the capability to heal on its own. However, the natural healing process can take time and there is also risk of infection especially in the early stages of injury. In such cases, medicated creams can be applied to the site of injury to speed up the healing process as well as protect the wound from infection. In this review, we have focused on the use of topical drug delivery system i.e. pharmaceutical creams for wound healing with detailed discussion relating to the wound healing process, suitable methods of preparation of creams, their classification based on their function, their advantages and disadvantages, characteristics and the various types of creams, ingredients used in the formulation of creams and their various evaluation parameters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Creams, Skin, Topical drug delivery system, Wound healing</p> Lalita Chauhan, Shalini Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Rheumatoid Arthritis: Etiology, Treatment and Animal Models <p>Rheumatoid arthritis is an&nbsp;<a href="">autoimmune disease</a>&nbsp;that can cause joint pain and damage throughout your body. About 75% of Rheumatoid arthritis patients are women. In fact, 1 – 3% of women may get rheumatoid arthritis in their lifetime. The disease most often begins between the ages of 30 and 50. Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when your immune system attacks the synovium, the lining of the membranes that surround your joints. The resulting inflammation thickens the synovium, which can eventually destroy the cartilage and bone within the joint. The tendons and ligaments that hold the joint together weaken and stretch. Gradually, the joint loses its shape and alignment. It also affects other organs of body like: skin, eyes, heart, kidneys, and lungs. &nbsp;The main risk factors that cause Rheumatoid arthritis are Age, Gender, Genetics, weight, smoking, diet, etc. Three main ways to treat rheumatoid arthritis are Drugs, physical therapies and surgery. There are four main groups of drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs &nbsp;and steroids (also known as corticosteroids). Collagen induced arthritis and Adjuvant arthritis are the most commonly used standard animal models in Rheumatoid arthritis.&nbsp; This literature review assessed the sign &amp; symptoms, risk factors, etiology, treatment and standard animal models for Rheumatoid arthritis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rheumatoid arthritis, Inflammation, Antirheumatic drugs, Adjuvants, Rat, Mice.</p> Archana Chaudhary, Pandit Vinay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 03:49:34 -0500 Ocular Allergy: A Review on Ocular Effects of Cosmetic Products <p>The eyes are the windows to the body, healthy brain function needs healthy eyesight. Recently so many problems arise due to the unsafe use of ocular cosmetics. Eye cosmetics can cause ocular allergy or toxicity. It produces mild discomfort to serious vision threatening problems. This review focus on the reason as well as problems associated with ocular cosmetics. Based on the data from various reviews and research shows that preservatives, metals &amp; fragrances include in the products are the main causative agents for ocular allergy. The main adverse reactions were found to be allergic blepharo conjunctivitis, disruption of the tear film and other inflammatory reactions. The purpose of this article is to give a general awareness about the safe use of ocular cosmetics to get rid of ocular allergy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ocular cosmetics; Ocular Allergy; Allergic contact blepharo conjunctivitis; inflammatory reactions.</p> Cherakkulath C Neena, K. Sreejith, B Athulnadh, K.V. Musaina Thasneem, Namitha Maniyan, P.P. Muhamed Faris ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 -0500