Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Wed, 15 Jul 2020 03:18:11 -0500 OJS 60 COMPARISON OF CLINICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN CHILDHOOD ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC AND MYELOID LEUKEMIA IN WESTERN ALGERIA, FROM 2016 TO 2018 <p><strong>Background and Objectives:</strong> Haematological malignancies account for approximately 40% of all cancers by the age of 15 years. Acute leukaemia (AL) account for one-third of childhood cancer cases; consisting of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML). The aim of this work is to describe the epidemiological, clinical, biological and evolutionary characteristics of children with acute leukaemia in the western and south-western region of Algeria.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> A three-year retrospective study was undergone from January 2016 to December 2018 on children with acute leukaemia. The study was conducted at the paediatric oncology department of the anti-cancer -Emir AEK- of Missreghine in Oran.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> During this period, we identified 135 cases of diagnosed AL. The sex ratio M/F was 1.1. The “two to five-year” age group was the most affected. The prevalence of ALL, AML, and biphenotypic&nbsp;acute&nbsp;leukaemia (BAL) was 60.45%, 23.88%, and 15.57%, respectively. The clinical signs were mainly presented by the tumour syndrome dominated by the presence of lymphadenopathy (63%) and splenomegaly (56.3%). The most frequent abnormal blood abnormalities were anaemia (66.66% in ALL and 28.14% in AML), thrombocytopenia (75.9% in ALL and 24.4% in AML) and leukocytosis (76.3% ALL and 23.7% AML).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Paediatric acute leukaemia is a real public health problem that requires special care and attention. This management must involve all epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects for this highly sensitive age group.</p> Sara Khedidja BEGHDOUD, Chahrazed YOUCEF, Mustapha DIAF, Amaria BOUMEDANE ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Designing, Cytotoxic Evaluation, Molecular Docking and in Silico Pharmacokinetic Prediction of New Hydrocortisone Derivatives as Anti-Asthmatics Drugs <p>A series of new 20 corticosteroids were subjected to molecular property prediction. The Molecular, Physicochemical, and Biological properties were determined using Molinspiration Cheminformatics software. These compounds were further subjected to Toxicity Predictions using the Osiris Software. The calculated drug-related properties of the designed molecules were similar to those found in most marketed drugs. Amongst the proposed molecules, fourteen promising candidates can be considered as promising structures for the synthesis of new and more effective anti-asthmatic drugs. Result indicates that the derivatives are orally active molecules.&nbsp; In-silico ADME and toxicity prediction was accomplished with the help of Swiss-ADMET tool provides the latest and most inclusive for diverse chemicals associated with known Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity profiles. furthermore, BBB (Blood brain barrier) penetration, HIA (Human intestinal absorption), Caco-2 cell permeability and Ames test were calculated using ADMET web-based query tools incorporating a molecular build in interface enable the database to be queried by Smiles and structural similarity search. According to molecular docking results, derivatives No 4, 10 and 11 showed better docking Scores values compared to other derivatives and also dexamethasone and hydrocortisone.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Corticosteroids, Drug-likeness, Lipophilicity, Anti-asthmatic, ADME.</p> Walid Bououden, Yacine Benguerba ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Is there an association between Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies and the Severity of Rheumatoid Arthritis Parameters in Algerian Patients? <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationships between anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibodies status and clinical characteristics, disease severity, radiological damages and laboratory assessment in Algerian patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, as well as their importance like a predictive factor for the diagnosis of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>281 patients diagnosed with RA according to ACR 1987 criteria in the&nbsp; internal medicine and Functional Rehabilitation departments (the University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes) were enrolled in the study based on medical records including age, gender, disease duration, disease activity score (DAS28), joint damages, laboratory tests and treatment. All data were processed and analyzed via SPSS 22.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 86.5% of patients were females with a mean age and disease duration of respectively 52.665±12.3477, 4.19±4.050.&nbsp; Patients with Anti-CCP positive (79.7%) presented a high disease activity (p<strong>&lt;0.0001)</strong>, a long disease duration (p=<strong>0.016) </strong>and a erosion damages (p<strong>&lt;0.0001). </strong>we did not found any significant relation between gender, hands damages and CRP..A logistic regression showed that the presence of Anti-CCP was associated with Erosion, disease activity, age and RF presence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was a strong relation between Anti-CCP antibodies status and the development of RA in Algerian patients. It could be considered as a useful predictor of disease severity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> siheme OUALI, Khalida ZEMRI, Ferial SELLAM, Noria HARIR, Zahira BENIASSA, Sid Tadj HEBRI, Ouassini BENSABER, Douniazad ELMEHADJI, Zouaoui NADJI, Karima KAROUBI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Apoptotic Effects of Prunus persica (L) Batsch Leaves against Breast Cancer Cell Line (MDA-MB-231) and Cervical Cancer Cell Line (HeLa) In Vitro <p><strong>Background</strong>: Apoptosis is a normal physiological phenomenon that plays a pivotal role during embryonic development, retention of tissue homeostasis and pathology<strong>. </strong>The experimental investigation of apoptotic processes is still challenging and routinely based on the assessment of molecular events like chromatin fragmentation and caspase enzyme activity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the apoptosis inducing effect of the Methanol, aqueous and chloroform extracts of <em>Prunus persica</em> leaves.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Different extracts were obtained by cold extraction process using Methanol, water and Chloroform as solvents. Crude extracts were screened for different phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, tannins, sugars, saponins, and glycosides etc. The apoptotic effect of <em>Prunus persica</em> leaves was examined by DAPI staining assay against MDA-MB-231 (Human breast cancer cell line) and HeLa (Human cervical cancer cell line).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results of the studies revealed that the Chloroform extract have tremendous apoptotic activity on MDA-MB-231 cells and methanolic extract have good apoptotic activity on HeLa cells. Nuclear morphological changes assessed by DAPI shows changes in morphology, apoptotic body formation, cell shrinkage, nuclei that were broken into discrete fragments and cell budding that resulted&nbsp; in cells of various sizes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloids, tannins, Saponins, steroids and flavonoids. The Chloroform extract has shown more effectiveness and less toxicity against MDA-MB-231 and Methanol extract was more apoptotic against HeLa in comparison to others. The present findings clearly indicated that <em>Prunus persica</em> leaves showed dose dependant cytotoxicity.</p> Firdous Ahmad Bhat, Sabeeha Shafi, Nazia Hilal, Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Aneequa Rafiqee ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Antibiotic Prescription and Utilization amongst Hospitalized Children in a Tertiary Facility in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Antibiotics are the most widely utilized therapeutic agents. Inappropriate use causes increase cost and antibiotic resistance. The World Health Organization recommends assessment of antibiotics use to guide prescribing practices.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the pattern of antibiotic usage among paediatric inpatients aged &gt; 1 month to 15 years in a tertiary hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Febrile children were recruited prospectively by systematic random sampling from January to October 2018. Socio-demographics, diagnosis, antibiotics administered were obtained from case notes. The WHO indicators of use of antibiotics were employed for evaluation. Data was analysed with SPSS version 23.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 352 children, 318 (90.3%) received antibiotics; commonest being Ceftriaxone in 155/318 (48.7%), Cefuroxime in 74 (23.2%), and Metronidazole in 29 (9.1%). Average number of antibiotics per patient was 2.3±1.1 with treatment duration of 4.3±1.4days. Antibiotic consumption was 937.2 days of antibiotic therapy/1000 patient days (DOT/PD). Generic name was used in 92.3% while 100% of the drugs were on the essential medicine list. Frequent diagnoses were severe malaria 98/352 (27.8%), respiratory infections 39 (11.1%) and severe malnutrition in 38 (10.8%). Only 6 (1.7%) patients had microbiologic evidence of infection.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Utilization of antibiotics is higher than recommended. There is need for improved diagnostic facilities to avoid antibiotic overuse and its consequences.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>antibiotics, prescription, utilization, children, inpatients, DOT</p> Khadijat Omeneke Isezuo, UM Sani, BI Garba, UM Waziri, OB Okwuolise, A Adamu, FB Jiya, M Amodu-Sanni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Bioactive Compounds in the Peripheral Layers of Barley and Triticale Species in the Mature Grain Cultivated in Algeria <p>The present study designed to determine in compositions of peripheral layer (PL) from barley and triticale. The peripheral layer is a co-product of the grain mill, it represents with the flour and the germ one of the three fractions of the milling, it is used for the chemical protection of the endosperm and the germ. Phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, vitamins and minerals) are beneficial for the health of consumers and are found abundantly in the peripheral layer of cereals. The objective of our work consists an evaluation of the phytochemical value for peripheral layers, the evaluation of the antioxidant content and the antioxidant activity of two varieties of two species of cereal in mature grain: triticale (Ksar Sbahi, Beni Haroun) and barley (Fouara, Saida); from two different regions (Sidi Bel Abbes and Constantine). Finally a comparative study was found in this work. The results obtained show that the variety of each species Triticale (Ksar Sbahi), barley (Fouara) have the highest content of polyphenol and flavonoid (0.027 mg (EAG)/g; 0.019 mg EC/g) and (0.012 mg (EAG)/g; 0.013 mg EC/g), respectively, for the antioxidant activity barley Fouara 1.91 mg/ml shows the best activity against the DPPH radical, a high level of minerals has been observed for the triticale species and a higher level of sodium for the Fouara variety of barley 33.78 mg/l. We are planning additional studies to better characterize the nature of the polyphenolic compounds existing in different histological parts of the wheat grain.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Barley, Triticale, Peripheral layer, Polyphenols, Antioxidant activity,</p> Rawda Benguella, Samira Meziani, Ibtissam Ghueffari, Norddine Menadi, Fatima Zohra Chenni, Lahouaria Labga, Souad Saidani, Samir Barak, Mohammed Aissaouia, N.M. Rahmoun, Abassia Demmouche ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of alkaloid bulbs extract of Polianthes tuberosa L. (Amaryllidaceae) cultivated in Algeria <p><em>Polianthes tuberosa </em>L. (Amaryllidaceae) is an ornamental and medicinal plant. Its flowers and bulbs are used traditionally as a diuretic, emetic, against rashes and gonorrhea. The aim of this work was, to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bulbs and bulbils alkaloid extracts of <em>P. tuberosa</em>. Antiradical effect was assessed against DPPH radical. However, antimicrobial activity was measured through the disc diffusion method against <em>Escherichae coli</em> ATCC 25922, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> ATCC 27853, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC 25923, <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> ATCC 29212, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> resistant to Methicillin (MRSA) and <em>Candida albicans </em>ATCC 90028. The scavenging effect against DPPH showed that the bulbs and bulbils alkaloids extracts exhibited an antiradical effect with IC<sub>50</sub> = 0.231±0.017 mg/mL and 0.233±0.093 mg/mL respectively, less than the effect of vitamin C with IC<sub>50</sub> = 0.0194±0.0002 mg/mL. Antimicrobial activity results reveal that both alkaloid bulbs extracts at 50 mg/mL did not have any inhibitory effect against the studied strains using the disc diffusion method. According to this work, bulbs and bulbils alkaloid extracts show a moderate antioxidant effect; that could be recommended as a natural antioxidant. Although tuberose bulbs were used traditionally as a soap substitute; bulbs alkaloid extract has no antimicrobial effect.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Polianthes tuberosa </em>L., bulbs, bulbils, alkaloids, antiradical activity, antimicrobial activity.</p> Nihed BARGHOUT, Nada CHEBATA, Saida MOUMENE, Seddik KHENNOUF, Abdelaziz GHARBI, Djamel I EL HAD ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Pharmacist-Led Interventions on Improving Outcomes in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence from the Literature <p>Diabetes mellitus is a rapidly growing major health problem world-wide. The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus is complex, requiring continuous medical care by health care professionals and considerable self-care efforts by patients. A collaborative and integrated team approach in which pharmacists can play a pivotal role should be sought when managing patients with diabetes. Pharmacist-led care programs have been shown to help patients with diabetes succeed in achieving treatment goals and improving outcomes. Hence, the aim of this narrative review is to address and summarize the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions in the management of diabetic patients. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched from the date of database inception to June 2019. All randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of pharmacist-based interventions on diabetic patients in comparison with usual care were included in study. Outcomes of interest included short-term and long-term measures such as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and secondary outcomes were blood glucose level, blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, body mass index (BMI), 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, medication adherence, health related quality of life (HRQoL), and economic outcomes. Twenty-five studies were included in this systematic study. They were heterogeneous in terms of interventions, participants, settings and outcomes. Pharmacist-led self-management interventions included education on diabetes and its complications, medication adherence, lifestyle and education of self-management skills. Few studies even focussed on patients need through a tailored intervention. We found that those who received the pharmacist care had a statistically significant improvement in HbA1C, blood pressure, lipid profile, health-related quality of life, and CHD risk. These results underline the added value of pharmacists in patient-related care.&nbsp; Hence this review supports the involvement of pharmacists as a member of health- care teams in managing diabetic patients at diverse settings worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>diabetes, self-management, HbA1C, pharmaceutical care, randomized controlled trial </em></p> Sini T Inasu, MV Kumudavalli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Physical Characterization of Bio-Degradable Chitosan-Poloxamer Gel Base for Local Drug Delivery <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Thermo-modulated in-situ hydrogel (TSHG) are formulated routinely utilizing poloxamer for extended drug release. However physical properties of such formulations may have some flaws, which can be rectified using a combination of polymers with better physical properties such as chitosan. The purpose of the present study was to fabricate biodegradable chitosan-poloxamer-based in-situ drug delivery systems and assessment of their physical properties.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present chitosan-poloxamer gel base was formulated using a two-stage method. Initially, chitosan gel was prepared by dissolving 1% w/w chitosan in glacial acetic acid. The poloxamer gel was prepared using “cold method”. The final chitosan-poloxamer gel base was prepared by mixing equal amounts of both solutions and evaluated for physical and mechanical properties.</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion:</strong> The DSC thermogram demonstrated no obvious interactions among ingredients or micellization temperature. The gelation temperature of the gel was between 27 and 33<sup>0</sup>C. The pH was 7 with slight clarity. The viscosity of the gel ranged from 15.14 to 41.19 pa.s. The gel was syringable between 4-30<sup>0</sup>C and biodegradable under physiological conditions. The mean particle size of the gel under SEM was found in the range of 300-554 nm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> After the evaluation of the formulation, it can be concluded that all the ingredients in the gel showed good compatibility with each other, which could form a stable and homogeneous gel with favorable mechanical and physical properties.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>chitosan, drug delivery system, hydrogels, poloxamer</p> Prasanna T. Dahake, Sudhindra M Baliga, Triveni Punse, Dinesh M Biyani, Neha Raut, Milind J Umekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Acute Toxicity Study of Aqueous Extracts of Thymelaea hirsuta Leaves And Flowers in Rabbits <p><em>Thymelaea hirsuta</em> is a medicinal plant known for its therapeutic virtues in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves and flowers of <em>Thymelaea hirsuta </em>in rabbit. Aqueous extract was administered to rabbit in single doses of 2.5, 4, 5.5 and 7 g/kg given by gavage. General behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to 7 days. Biochemical parameters aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol (CHOL) and glucose (GLU) were determined after 7 days. The results showed no mortality was observed during the 7 days of the observation period, an increase in AST and&nbsp; ALT in treated groups at the doses of 4, 5.5 and 7 g/kg, and a decrease in both cholesterol and glucose levels in treated groups compared to control.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Thymelaea hirsuta,</em> Acute toxicity, Biochemical parameters, adverses effects.</p> Mounira Merghem, Saliha Dahamna, Seddik Khennouf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Free Radical Scavenging Activity, Reducing Power and Anti-Hemolytic Capacity of Algerian Drimia maritima Baker Flower Extracts <p>This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-hemolytic properties of Algerian <em>Drimia maritima</em> Baker flower extracts. Determination of phenolic content was carried out to estimate the chemical composition of <em>D. maritima </em>extracts. Antioxidant properties were investigated in all extracts using free radical scavenging activity (against DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion), reducing power, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and anti-hemolytic capacity. Phenolic determination revealed that <em>D. maritima</em> flowers contain phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins. Ethyl acetate extract showed the highest reducing power and scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays. However, aqueous extract was the most effective against hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and lipid peroxidation. The half-time of hemolysis indicates that chloroform extract exhibited the best anti-hemolytic capacity in the AAPH induced hemolysis model. The results of this study suggest that <em>D. maritima </em>could be used as a possible source of antioxidant phenolic compounds and that further determination of these compounds may provide more information on their medicinal value.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Drimia maritima</em>, phenolic compounds, scavenging activity, reducing power, anti-hemolytic.</p> Abir Rezzagui, Abderrahmane Senator, Soumia Benbrinis, Hamama Bouriche ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Development and Validation of Stability-Indicating Assay Method by RP-HPLC for Simultaneous Estimation of Rosuvastatin Calcium and Fenofibrate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form <p>A Simple, precise, and accurate stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method has been established for the simultaneous estimation of rosuvastatin calcium and fenofibrate in combined bulk and tablet formulation. The chromatographic separation was performed on reverse phase Princeton (C18) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5µ) column with mobile phase as a mixture of water (pH adjusted to 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in the ratio (40:60) v/v at the flow rate 1.0 ml/min. Detection was carried out at wavelength 240 nm. The retention time under the optimized condition of Rosuvastatin calcium and Fenofibrate was found to be 2.485 &amp; 3.905 minutes respectively. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 6-16 µg/ml and 87-232 µg/ml for rosuvastatin calcium and fenofibrate with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 0.9994 respectively. Relative standard deviation values for all key parameters were less than 2.0%. The percentage recovery was found to be 99.66-100.37% and 99.13-100.44% for rosuvastatin calcium and fenofibrate respectively. The developed reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was found to be simple, specific, sensitive, rapid, linear, accurate, precise, and economical, and could be used for regular quality control of rosuvastatin calcium and fenofibrate in bulk and tablet formulations.<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Rosuvastatin calcium, Fenofibrate, RP-HPLC, Method validation, ICH guidelines.</p> Awdhut Pimpale, Rajendra Kakde ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Study of the Chelating Ability of Hexane, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate and Methanolic Root Extracts from Algerian Phragmites australis Species <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Heavy metals that enter organisms can cause illness and disease. Chelation therapy is a solution that uses chelating agents to protect these organisms by high accumulation. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of different roots extracts from reed or EDTA (as standard) to complexate iron using, ferrozine-ferrous reducing assay or Zn and Cu using the murexide-Zn or Cu reducing assay <em>in vitro</em>. <strong>Results:</strong> the results proved that the organic phase of the first extract and EDTA (standard chelator), have the strongest chelation activities with respective rates of 70% and 97% for iron, 55% and 56% for zinc and 47% and 88% for copper compared to the control groups considered to be 100% of the complexation. Finally, the HPLC analysis showed the presence of six organic acids, which are probably responsible for this effect. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The hexane extract and EDTA (standard), have the strongest chelation activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Phragmites australis</em>, Chelation, Heavy metals, Organic acids, Ferrozine, Murexide.</p> Abdelhakim Sellal, Rima Belattar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Susceptibility Profiles of Enterococcus faecalis to Selected Antibiotics <p>This study was conducted in order to determine the susceptibility of <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> to the antibiotics penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and gentamicin through measuring the zone of inhibition. The susceptible, intermediate and resistant categories were assigned on the basis of the critical points recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. <em>E. faecalis</em> was susceptible to tetracycline as low as 20 μg/20 μl. Starting at a dose of 60 μg/20 μl and 200 μg/20 μl, the bacterium was susceptible to penicillin and erythromycin, respectively. The bacterium was resistant to chloramphenicol even at the highest dosage of 400 μg/20 μl. Meanwhile, from 5 to 100 μg/20 μl, the bacterium was resistant to gentamicin and the classification was changed into intermediate starting at 200 μg/20 μl.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, antibiotics, susceptibility&nbsp;</p> Alvin T Reyes, Lyda B Balagtey, Jemuel S Doctolero, Francis N Madrid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Method Development and Validation of Gemifloxacin in Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC <p>A simple, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of gemifloxacin in the tablet dosage form. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C-18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/acetate buffer of pH 4.5 (70:30 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and a detection wavelength of 244 nm. The separation was carried out on an isocratic mode at room temperature. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD, LOQ and specificity. The developed method showed good linearity over the concentration range of 50-150 µg/ml (<em>r</em><sup>2</sup>=0.995). The average percentage recovery was 99.77%. The LOD and LOQ were 12.678 µg/ml and 14.261 µg/ml, respectively. Based upon validation studies, the developed method can be successfully applied for the routine analysis of gemifloxacin in bulk drugs as well as pharmaceutical dosage forms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Gemifloxacin, Tablet dosage form, RP-HPLC, Validation, ICH guidelines</p> Mithun Rudrapal, Nazim Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Design and Synthesis of Novel Anticancer Peptide Nanoparticles <p>Cancer has now become a common disease affecting human health. Existing cancer treatment drugs can no longer meet the growing needs of cancer patients, and the emergence of anticancer drug resistance has exacerbated this phenomenon. By designing and synthesizing new anticancer peptide nanoparticles and studying their anticancer effects, new strategies for cancer treatment may be obtained. Novel anticancer peptides are synthesized by adding basic amino acids and solid-phase synthesis technology, and their structural information is determined by mass spectrometry. Nanoparticles of anticancer peptide were synthesized by nano-self-assembly technology. Two novel anticancer peptides exhibited anticancer activity, one of which was assembled into nanoparticles. The theoretical isoelectric points of the modified SZG3 and SZG5 are all greater than physiological pH, and will be positively charged under physiological conditions. The estimated half-life of SZG3 and SZG5 is significantly extended (30h), which is beneficial to increase the efficacy and reduce toxic and side effects. SZG3 and SZG5 have a good inhibitory effect on tumor cells and have low toxicity to normal cells.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> anticancer peptide, study, design, cancer, nanoparticles&nbsp;</p> Zhi-Gang Sun, Zhi-Na Li, Bao-Chan Yang, Liang-Hui Zhao ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Polyphenols contents and antioxidant Activity of extracts from Leaves and flowers of Thymelaea hirsuta <p><em>Thymelaea hirsuta</em>&nbsp; is a medicinal plant, belonging to the genus Thymelaea (Thymelaeaceae) widely used in Mediterranean countries especially in Algeria. In this study, we have evaluated the total polyphenols and flavonoids contents of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Leaves and flowers of <em>Thymelaea hirsuta </em>as well as its antioxidant activity using the DPPH (2'2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl) and β-carotene /linoleic acid bleaching assays. The yield of the methanolic and aqueous extract was 11, 55% and 13, 25% respectively. The total polyphenols content of the methanolic extract was 295, 22 µg GAE/ mg extract and flavonoids was 09, 40 µg QE/mg and 26, 42 µg RE/ mg extract. The total polyphenols content of the aqueous extract was 57, 95 µg GAE/ mg extract and flavonoids was 4.59 µg QE/ mg and 10.66 µg RE/ mg extract. In the DPPH assay, methanolic extract showed the higher scavenging capacity (IC<sub>50</sub> = 0.03 ± 0.004 mg/ml), followed by aqueous extract with IC<sub>50 </sub>of 0.275 ± 0.019 mg/ml. In the test of β-carotene /linoleic acid, the percentage of inhibition was 39.1±1.33% for the aqueous extract and 41.05±2.72% for methanolic extract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Thymelaea hirsuta</em>, antioxidant activity, polyphenols, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene.</p> Mounira Merghem, Saliha Dahamna, Seddik Khennouf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Ethnobotanical Study, Anatomical Study and Phytochemical Screening of Aristolochia longa L. <p><em>Aristolochia longa</em> L. (<em>Aristolochiaceae</em>) is used in Algerian traditional medicine. The ethnobotanical study conducted in the region of Setif (East Algeria) has as an objective of evaluating the potential of the region of Aristolochia longa L. used in the treatment of different diseases. A questionnaire was used which consisted of the diseases treated by this plant, the part of the plant used in the treatment and how to use this plant. The survey targeted 100 people from the local population. We also evaluated the phytochemical composition of the aerial parts (stems and leaves), fruits and tubers. Our results showed that <em>A. longa </em>is widely used to treat several ailments such as cancer (43%), diabetes (17%), and treatment of wounds in cattle (12%), and intestinal and stomach diseases (9 and 7%), the most used part is tubers by 70%.Crushed tubers are commonly mixed with honey(44%), milk(24%), water (8%). Results of the phytochemical screening revealed that <em>A. longa </em>contained various bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, and Alkaloids. In addition, there is very little information concerning the anatomical and morphological structure of this species of Setif region (Algeria), a preliminary study on anatomy of this plant is therefore reported in this paper. These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their bioactive substances could be exploited for therapeutic purposes such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, and may be considered as a promising source of new drugs for treating cancer.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Aristolochia longa</em> L., ethnobotany Setif(Algeria), anatomical study of plant, phytochemical screening.</p> N. Merouani, H. Boukhebti, R. Belhattab ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Development of Transdermal Patches for the Delivery of Chlorpheniramine in Infants using Hypromellose and Cassava Starch Composite Polymers <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine that is used in the treatment of rhinitis and other allergies. <strong>Objectives:</strong> The objectives of this research was to develop and evaluate transdermal patches for improved delivery of chlorpheniramine in infants using hypromellose and cassava starch composite polymers. <strong>Methods:</strong> Chlorpheniramine transdermal patches were formulated by solvent casting method using varying amounts of hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose), cassava starch and polyethylene glycol 4000. The formulated transdermal patches were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), folding endurance, elongation breaking test, percentage moisture uptake/loss and <em>ex vivo</em> permeation studies. <strong>Results:</strong> The spectra showed no chemical interaction between the ingredients. The transdermal patches showed elastic qualities and high folding endurance. Patches with consistently high moisture uptake (around 40%) were observed to contain high concentration of cassava starch while those with higher amounts of HPMC lost more water (around 35%). The <em>ex vivo</em> study showed efficient permeation and flux for the target purpose. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Transdermal patches may be used to deliver low dose chlorpheniramine drug through the skin possibly soft and thin infant skin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Transdermal; permeation; flux; allergy; chlorpheniramine</p> Chukwuma O. Agubata, Blessing B. Nta, Godswill C. Onunkwo, Parker E. Joshua, Sabinus I. Ofoefule, Remigius I. Onoja ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 In vitro antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of extracts and fractions of Plectranthus glandulosus leaves on copper sulfate (CuSO4)-induced oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein <p>Oxidation of LDL has been suggested to be an initial step in the development of atherosclerosis. This research work deals with the evaluation of antioxidant potential of <em>Plectranthus glandulosus</em> leaves extracts and fractions as well as its protective effects against human LDL oxidation. A preliminary quantitative phytochemical screening was carried out. Antioxidant potential was evaluated employing <em>in vitro </em>hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide scavenging assays and TAOC test. The human LDL oxidation induced by CuSO<sub>4</sub> inhibition test was also performed. <em>Plectranthus glandulosus</em> leaves exhibited the presence of 18.3% of saponines, 25.6% of terpenoids and 36.2% of flavonoids. EAF exhibited highest hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenger activity (IC<sub>50</sub> 13.63µg/ml and 24.59 µg/ml respectively). Ascorbic acid exhibited an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 15.39µg/ml in hydrogen peroxide assay and 22.96 µg/ml in nitric oxide scavenging activity. EAF exhibited a higher TAOC (optical density 0.186±0.00) than that of ascorbic acid (0.162±0.001) at the concentration of 25µg/ml while at 200µg/ml N-BUTF exhibited a higher optical density (1.261±0.001) than that of ascorbic acid (1.065±0.001). EAF lengthened the lag time of the CD formation up to 150mins at the concentration 1mg/ml. TBARS formation inhibition at the concentration 0.5mg/ml, were no significant different between n-butanol (68.55%) ethyl acetate fraction (68.21%) and quercetin 67.69%). <em>Plectranthus glandulosus</em> is a promising prospect as an anti-atherosclerotic agent and needs a detailed study to establish the same.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> <em>Plecthrantus glandulosus</em>; oxidation; LDL; atherosclerosis, antioxidant.</p> Djamila Zouheira, Gabriel A Agbor, Randhir Singh, Sylviane Laure Poualeu Kamani, Anu Kajal, Shah Asma Farooq, Sylvie Lea Wansi Ngnokam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Pharmacognostic Screening and Anti-inflammatory Investigation of the Methanol extract of stem bark of Blighia unijugata Baker (Sapindaceae) <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> <em>Blighia unijugata </em>is a potent medicinal plant extensively employed in traditional herbal remedies for the treatment of various diseases such as fever, fertility, inflammation, hypertension, migraine and treatment of infections due to microorganisms.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This work, investigates the pharmacognostic screening and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of <em>B. unijugata</em> stem bark<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Collection, drying, pulverization, and methanol extraction of the stem bark were done accordingly. The screening of phytochemical constituents and Pharmacognostic numerical data were carried out. The chromatographic analysis was carried out using TLC. The acute toxicity was determined using Lorke’s method. Methanol extract was investigated for anti-inflammatory effect in albino rats using egg-induced hind paw oedema at doses of 200, 400 and 600mg/kg body weight respectively.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The macroscopical investigation showed the stem bark outer layer is greyish and, the inner layer is pale reddish brown, disagreeable odour, bitter, Microscopical screening revealed the presence of starch grains, trichomes and sclerenchyma cells. Chemomicroscopic result revealed the presence of lignin, starch, calcium oxalate, cellulose, stone cells. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the powdered bark showed the presence of saponins, steroids, tannins, and resins. Numerical data: moisture content/ weight loss on drying gave value of 7.7%, percentage yield of 6.7%, alcoholic soluble extractive 5.6%, water soluble extractive 6.3%, total ash of 7.1%,&nbsp; acid insoluble ash 0.57% and water soluble ash 4.56%. The chromatographic screening results were close compared with the standard drug. Toxicity test established the lethal dose of greater than 5000mg/kg. There was a significant inhibition of the edema p&gt;0.05, the presence of various bioactive constituents may have contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of the plant extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The result of this study confirms that the barks of <em>B. unijugata</em> have anti-inflammatory effect and justifies the use as traditional treatment of inflammation and pain.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Blighia unijugata</em>, Inflammation, Inflammatory agents, Anti inflammatory</p> Felix N. Osuala, Uchenna E. Odoh, VictoriaC. Onuigbo, Sylvester C. Ohadoma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Gastroprotective effect and in vitro Antioxidant Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Artemisia absinthium L Aerial Parts <p><em>Artemisia absinthium L</em>. is a medicinal plant largely used in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to estimate the content of polyphenols, and flavonoids compounds and also to evaluate the antioxidant and the anti-ulcer activities of the Aqueous extract from <em>Artemisia absinthium </em>L. aerial parts. The Folin-Ciocalteau and AlCl<sub>3</sub> methods were applied in order to quantify the polyphenolic and flavonoids contents, respectively. However, DPPH&nbsp;&nbsp; method was used to evaluate the <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant activity. Quantitative analysis of the yield and phenolic content of the aqueous extract of <em>Artemisia absinthium</em> showed that the yield of the aqueous extract was 19.32% and its phenolic content was 58.66 ± 2.16 μg GAE / mg dry extract for polyphenols and 6.85 μg QE / mg dry extract for the flavonoids. The antioxidant activity of the plant extract evaluated by the DPPH test is very important (IC<sub>50</sub>=45.48±0.37 µg/ml). Treatment of mice with the aqueous extract of <em>Artemisia absinthium</em> at a dose of 400 mg / kg significantly reduced the ulcerogenic effect of ethanol on the gastric wall with an estimated protection rate of 91%. These findings suggest that <em>Artemisia absinthium </em>L.&nbsp; aqueous extract possessed good antiulcer and antioxidant potentials. This supports the traditional claims of this plant in folklore medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Artemisia absinthium</em>, polyphenols, antioxidant activity, gastric ulcer, ethanol.</p> Chahrazed KAOUDOUNE, Fatima Benchikh, Hassiba Benabdallah, Karima Loucif, Soulaf Mehlous, Smain Amira ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Anthelmentic and Antimicrobial Activity of the Extract of the Root of the Plant Jasminum multiflorum(Andr.) <p>As per qualitative evaluation in different solvents of the root of the plant satisfies the presence of cardiac glycosides along with trace quantities of steroid and saponins. Among them the petroleum ether extract of the root of the plant <em>Jasminum multiflorum</em> was evaluated for anthelmintic activity and the ethanolic extract was evaluated for antimicrobial activity.<sup>1,2 </sup>Traditionally this species are used in indolent ulcer, pitta and inflammation. Only few CNS activity are reported on ethanolic extract of aerial part of the plant, though the root of the plant is more potent as per folkore claim. The petroleum ether extract was investigated for anthelmentic activity using earthworm (<em>Pheretima posthuma</em>) at different concentration (5mg/ml – 50 mg/ml). As standard albendazole suspension (10mg/ml) and 3% solution of normal saline was used as control. The death and paralysis time were recorded and compared. Extract exhibit significant anthelmentic activity at (100mg/ml) concentration and found effective.<sup>1,3,4</sup>The ethanolic fraction of the root of the plant was collected and evaporated to dryness under vacuum to avoid the presence of even less quantity of ethanol in the extract. Two Gram (<sup>+</sup>ve) bacteria namely <em>Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus </em>and two Gram (<sup>-</sup>ve) ve bacteria namely<em> Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Klebsiella pneumonia </em>were selected for the estimation of antimicrobial activity depending on zone of inhibition. It was seen that 100mg/ml concentration of the extract showed maximum activity against <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> with a zone of inhibition 0.5mm and for others it ranged from 0.3 to 0.4 mm. <sup>1,4,5</sup></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Jasminum multiforum</em>; anthelmintic; antimicrobial; zone of inhibition</p> Sandip Kumar Pahari, B.K. Gupta, R. Debnath, A. Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Association of Inflammatory Pathologies and Crohn's Disease: A Retrospective Study in the West Algerian Region <p><strong>Background: </strong>Crohn's disease is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory bowel disease that progresses slowly. Also CD patients have a large number of extra-intestinal manifestations.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> we sought to define the possible associations between inflammatory pathology and localization and on the other hand, inflammatory pathologies and the disease behavior</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A retrospective analytical study was carried out at the level of gastric and general surgery services of Western Algerian University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes region, during the period 2007-2019.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>&nbsp;Our study was based on a total sample of 295 cases involving 114 females (38.6%) and 181 males (61.4%) with a sex ratio of (1.58). The location of the disease at the time of diagnosis was dominated by the ileo-caecal location (55.3%), of which 64.4% were associated with inflammatory pathology (IP). The majority of patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease had an inflammatory behavior and this for all age groups. The appendix, the ulcer and inflammatory anemia are most associated with Crohn’s disease. For inflammatory extra-intestinal manifestations, only group of patients with arthralgia had significantly higher rates in the 20-60 age groups. The mainly noted risk factors were appendectomy with (17.3%), smoking (22.4%) with a highly significant association, and alcoholism (6.1%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>According to our results the association of inflammatory pathology and crohn disease is more frequent in male and dominated by arthralgia as extra-intestinal manifestations lesions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Crohn disease; Inflammatory pathology; disease behavior; inflammatory extra-intestinal manifestation.</p> Zahira BENAISSA, Khedoudja KANOUN, Khalida ZEMRI, Noria HARIR, siheme OUALI, Feriel SELLAM, Douniazad ELMEHADJI, Lahcen BELHANDOUZ, Mustapha ELAIB ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Hematologic malignancies in children: Epidemiological aspects in the pediatric oncology department of Oran Anti-Cancerous center, Algeria (2009-2013) <p>The incidence of the hematological malignacies, cancers of blood and lymphoid organs, has been in continuous increase for the last 20 years. In Algeria, few data on hematologic malignancies are available in the absence of a population register. The aim of this work is to describe the epidemiological aspect of hematologic malignancies in children from northwestern Algeria.</p> <p>This study was carried out in 366 patients, with hematological malignancies, aged from 1 month to 15 years, over a period of 5 years (2009-2013). The study was carried out in the Anti-Cancerous Centre of Oran, Algeria.</p> <p>We noted a predominance of male gender comparing to the females with a sex ratio M/F of 1.2. A male predominance was found for all pathologies (sex ratio of 1.08 for acute lymphoid leukemia, ALL) except for acute myeloid leukemia, AML where a female predominance was observed with a sex ratio F/M of 1.21. 0-3 years age group is the most affected by these haemopathies with 34.2%, however, patients older than 10 years are the least affected. The most frequent malignant haemopathies was the ALL with 60.9%, followed by the AML with 16.9%. The mortality rate in all the studied patients is about 8.2%. The mortality rate in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was about 20%, which is significantly higher compared to those recorded in patients with ALL and LH (5.4% and 5%, respectively).</p> <p>This study highlights the need for broader strategies for better understanding of all epidemiological aspects of childhood hematological malignancies and for adopting case management and prevention policies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hematologic malignancies, epidemiological characteristics, children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Oran anti cancerous centre.</p> Chahrazed Bachir Bouiadjra, Oum Kaltoum Seddiki, Mustapha Bachir Diaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Chronology of Gall’s emergence of Dryomyia lichtensteini F.Löw, 1878 (Diptera: Cecidomyidae) and its effect on Quercus ilex’s Sanitary state in Setif (Algeria) <p>In the last years, an insect is detected on the foliage of <em>Quercus ilex</em> trees in Algeria (North-East region). <em>Dryomyia lichtensteini F.Löw, 1878 (Diptera: Cecidomyidae)</em>, The Chronology of Gall’s emergence of <em>Dryomyia lichtensteini </em>and its field infestation rate were followed since 2014, in evergreen oak plantation in the Algerian North-East Region (Setif). Some statistical methods of Gall’s emergence of this pest and its effect at <em>Quercus ilex</em>’s Sanitary state are reviewed and discussed. For each study area (North-South-East-West), 10 trees were marked. 30 leaves of each tree were removed, so it is 300 leaves for each site, which were analyzed. This study is based on the number of galls observed. In order to highlight the degree of attack of pests. The outputs were made from November 2014 to November 2016, due to one output per month.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Quercus ilex</em><em>, </em>Cecidomyidae, gall inducers, Algeria</p> Sofiane Guettaf, Nouredinne LAADEL, F. Benia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Aluminium and Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on rat Brain: Impact on Neurobehavioral and Histological study <p>'Rosmarinus officilnalis' is a plant used in Mediterranean diet and traditional medicine, possessing various antioxidant and cytoprotective bioactivities. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective efficacy of aqueous Rosemary extract (AER) against neurotoxicity induced by Aluminum (Al), in terms of behavioral, biochemical and histological aspects in young rats. an intraperitoneal injection of Al, at the weekly dose of 60mg/Kg was given to the animals. A treatment of 150mg/Kg/day of AER was administered by gavage over periods of 6 or 12weeks. Al caused intense changes over time in body and brain weight, increase in neurological disorders such as depression, anxiety, and deficiency in memory skills. Results show also disturbances in locomotors activity, with a significant inhibition of AchE and increase LDH activity compared to control. Additionally, Al induced structural damages in the cerebral cortex, and the CA1 region of hippocampus. However, treatment with AER resulted in improved depression and anxiety state, locomotors activity and restored memory skills. Results show that AER increase the AchE activity and decreased neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and the CA1 region of hippocampus with the 6weeks treatment but induced disruption and structural modification of brain tissue after the 12 weeks treatment. The Aqueous extract of Rosemary possess a neuroprotector and corrective effect against neurological alterations induced by Aluminum, but when administered over a long period of time, the extract can cause a no beneficial effect and morphologic modifications in cerebral tissue and behavior test.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rosmarinus officinalis, Aluminum, neuro-behavior, brain structure.</p> Zakia Lahouel, Omar Kharoubi, Amina Boussadia, Zohra Bekkouche, Abdelkader Aoues ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Polyphenols Content of the Hydro-methanolic Extract from Saccocalyx satureioides Coss and Dur <p>This study aimed to estimate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the Hydro-methanolic from&nbsp;<em>Saccocalyx satureioides </em>Coss and Dur<em>&nbsp;</em>aerial part. Total polyphenols contents were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent. The flavonoids were estimated using the method of Aluminum chloride (AlCl<sub>3</sub>). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using two&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;models (the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power). Total phenolic and flavonoid content in the extract were 171.34 ±1.43 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g of dry extract (GAE/g) and 18.6 ± 0.46 mg Quercetin equivalent / g of dry extract (QE/g), respectively. The methanol extract has an important capacity to scavenge the free radical DPPH with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.03 ± 0. 0024 mg/ml. In addition, the plant extract exhibited high reducing power with an&nbsp;IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.54 ± 0.00625 mg/ml. The results of the present study may prove that the medicinal plants are a good resource of natural antioxidants.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antioxidant activity, <em>Saccocalyx satureioides, </em>polyphenols, flavonoids.</p> Soulaf MEHLOUS, Fatima BENCHIKH, Hassiba BENABDALLAH, Karima LOUCIF, Chahrazed KAOUDOUNE, Hocine LAOUER, Smain AMIRA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 In Vitro Antimicrobial, Antiviral and Cytotoxicity Activities of Aspergillus oryzae Isolated From El-Baida Marsh in Algeria <p>This work covers the study of antimicrobial and antiviral activities of the <em>Aspergillus oryzae</em> strain isolated from saline soil (El-Baida marsh in Algeria). The crude extract obtained with ethyl acetate displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast <em>Candida albicans </em>with a mean of 16.69 mm of inhibition zone and a minimal inhibitory concentrations MICs between 7.28 and 21.85 μgmL<sup>-1</sup>. We also assessed the antiviral activity against Herpes simplex-2 Virus (HSV-2), in which no inhibitory effect was exhibited<em>. </em>In addition, cytotoxicity activity was tested in Caco-2 and RAW 264, a human epithelial and a murine macrophage cell line, respectively, revealing a no-toxic effect of the extract. The studied isolate extract possesses an antimicrobial property and its non-toxicity to the host cells becomes very important, and can be exploited for the production of new pharmacological and biotechnological agents.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Aspergillus oryzae, </em>antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, cytotoxicity, fungal extraction.</p> Nacef Houda Sara, Belhattab Rachid, Galvez Julio, Rodriguez-Sojo María Jesus, Vezza Teresa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Antiulcer Activity of Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Lactuca sativa <p>In this modern era, gastrointestinal disorders are the universal problem. Peptic ulcer is one of the major diseases affecting the human population. It develops due to the imbalance between aggressive factors like acid, pepsin, H. pylori and bile salts and defensive factors like mucous, bicarbonate, blood flow, epithelial cell restoration and prostaglandins. The anti-ulcer activity of Ethanol extract of leaves of <em>Lactuca sativa</em> (EELS) was estimated using the experimental models of acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress in Wistar albino rats. Animals pre-treated with doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg of EELS were statistically analyzed and compared to the standard and control group with the parameters like volume of gastric secretion, total acidity and ulcer index. The results suggested that EELS significantly decreased volume of gastric acid secretion, total acidity and ulcer index in comparison with standard drug Omeprazole. EELS shown significant reduction in lesion index, total affected area and percentage of lesion in comparison with control group in Ethanol induced ulcer in experimental models. The gastric mucosal protective effect of EELS is brought by inhibiting the gastric secretion, which shows it may act like a proton pump inhibitor. Thus the present study indicates that EELS has anti-ulcerogenic potency in Ethanol induced, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress induced ulcers in rats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antiulcer, ulcer index, cold stress, peptic ulcer, pylorus ligation</p> B. Maheswari, P Rajyalakshmi Devi, K. Ajith, P VedPrakash, K. SeshaSai Gayatri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 Jul 2020 03:34:59 -0500 Comparative Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis of the Different Parts of Tinospora crispa: A Contribution to Sustainable Use of the Plant Species <p>The plant screening for phytochemical constituents seems to have the potential to act as a source of useful drugs and cures many infections as a result of the presence of various bioactive compounds that evident to have enormous activity against array human pathogens. The objective of the study was to undertake a comparative qualitative phytochemical analysis of the different parts of <em>Tinospora crispa </em>(<em>T. crispa</em>), a traditional herb used against several diseases. The different parts of <em>T. crispa</em> were extracted using maceration method. The results of phytochemical screening indicated that <em>T. crispa</em> contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids and terpenoids. The TLC profiles of samples, depicted through the <em>Rf </em>values of resolved compound bands and the solvent system selected for the best results of TLC was Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (7:5:1) and (5:4:1) for gallic acid and quercetin respectively. The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the bioactive compounds and a suitable solvent system for separation of those compounds from the <em>T. crispa</em>. These findings suggested that <em>T. crispa</em> leaves and flower extract could be a potential source of drugs which in future may serve for the production of synthetically improved therapeutic agents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Tinospora crispa,</em> Phytochemical screening, TLC profiles, Gallic acid, Quercetin</p> Durga Mahalle, Abhishek Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Diabetes Insipedes in a child disclosing localized Langerhans’ Cell Histiocytosis <p>Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is monoclonal neoplastic condition of aberrant bone marrow histiocytes.&nbsp; The latter are part of the innate immune system and certain exogenous/endogenous stimuli may trigger its expansion.&nbsp; Hence LCH can present with limited or multiple organ involvement that may include; bones, lung, endocrine, skin, lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow.&nbsp; In this case report, we describe a 3-year-old boy who presented with severe polyuria and polydipsia.&nbsp; Laboratory investigations were consistent with diabetes insipidus (DI).&nbsp; MRI of the brain; confirmed absence of the bright spot in his pituitary gland did not show evidence of tumor or enlargement by inflammation.&nbsp; Moreover, MRI revealed 2 skull lesions and their subsequent biopsy confirmed LCH.&nbsp; Systemic examination and tests including PET scan did not show additional lesions.&nbsp; Since his disease was localized, he received only Desmopressin acetate 120 ug twice daily for his DI without surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy.&nbsp; One year later, his disease remained limited to DI and the 2 bonny lesions.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> bone, diabetes insipidus, pituitary, desmopressin, Langerhans cell histiocytosis.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader, Zaneta Markova ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Association of Gout with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Pulmonary Toxicity of Methotrexate: A Case Report about Algerian Women <p>Coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and gout is considered as rare&nbsp; however some patients may gather both diseases. Long-term treatment with Methotrexate may cause pulmonary pathology. We report a case &nbsp;of a 48-year-old Algerian&nbsp; woman with medical history (swelling of knee&nbsp; and&nbsp; joint pain in the shoulders and hands) &nbsp;diagnosed with&nbsp; Rheumatoid&nbsp; Arthritis&nbsp; (RA), after&nbsp; 3 years of&nbsp; self-medication with Methotrexate;&nbsp; she returned with hyperurecimia that&nbsp;&nbsp; confirmed the co-presence of the gout and RA as well as a pneumonia confirmed with clinical&nbsp; sign and chest X-Ray. Methotrexate dose compliance can reduce adverse effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rheumatoid arthritis; Gout; Pneumonia; Methotrexate; Toxicity.</p> Siheme Ouali, Khalida ZEMRI, Khedoudja KANOUN, Noria HARIR, Zahira BENAISSA, Feriel SELLAM, Karima KAROUBI, Sid Tadj HEBRI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Triphala: A useful therapeutic supplement during COVID-19 pandemic <p>In this communication, efforts have been made to point out two different aspects: the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and several therapeutic effects of ‘Triphala’. The ‘Triphala’ have been acting as ‘one formula therapy’ since the time of the Ayurveda, and the COVID-19 is not an exception. The relationship between the pre- and post-symptom of COVID-19 and the therapeutic activity of ‘Triphala’ gives us a ray of hope to use Triphala as an anti-corona therapeutic supplement during the pandemic as well as in near future.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: COVID-19, Triphala, Ayurveda, Therapeutic activity</p> Biplob Ozah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Acute Renal Injury: Revisited <p>Acute kidney injury (AKI) indicates its abrupt deterioration and is defined as an increase in serum creatinine more than the baseline by <u>&gt;</u> 26 umol/L within 48 hours or <u>&gt;</u> 50% within 1 week.&nbsp; The latter since glomerular failure is the life-threatening one with: (a) uremic intoxication, (b) water and salt retention with fluid overload, and (c) potassium accumulation with cardiac arrest.&nbsp; The etiology can be pre-renal, post-renal or intrinsic.&nbsp; Diagnosis is established by history of new insults, physical examination for hydration status, systemic stability and manifestations of autoimmune diseases/infections as well as an initial laboratory testing for renal function (serum creatinine, electrolytes and urine routine) and kidney ultrasound.&nbsp; Additional specific tests are indicated to assess etiology of AKI and its associated co-morbid conditions that interacts with its management.&nbsp; Severity of AKI ranges from mild (stage 1) to advanced (stage 5) that requires dialytic support.&nbsp; Moreover, it depends on the type and duration of the insult.&nbsp; Prognosis depends on etiology of AKI, its co-morbid conditions and the timely interventions by the supportive medical team.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: acute, causes, epidemiology, injury, kidney, management.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking and QSAR Studies in Drug Discovery and Development Programme <p>Structure-based drug design (<em>SBDD</em>) and ligand-based drug design (<em>LBDD</em>) are the two basic approaches of computer-aided drug design (CADD) used in modern drug discovery and development programme. Virtual screening (or <em>in silico</em> screening) has been used in drug discovery program as a complementary tool to high throughput screening (HTS) to identify bioactive compounds. It is a preliminary tool of CADD that has gained considerable interest in the pharmaceutical research as a productive and cost-effective technology in search for novel molecules of medicinal interest. Docking is also used for virtual screening of new ligands on the basis of biological structures for identification of hits and generation of leads or optimization (potency/ property) of leads in drug discovery program. Hence, docking is approach of SBDD which plays an important role in rational designing of new drug molecules. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is an important chemometric tool in computational drug design. It is a common practice of LBDD. The study of QSAR gives information related to structural features and/or physicochemical properties of structurally similar molecules to their biological activity. In this paper, a comprehensive review on several computational tools of SBDD and LBDD such as virtual screening, molecular docking and QSAR methods of and their applications in the drug discovery and development programme have been summarized.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Virtual screening, Molecular docking, QSAR, Drug discovery, Lead molecule</p> Mithun Rudrapal, Dipak Chetia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Taryaq-i-Waba‘i: A review on Potent Compound Formulation of Unani Medicine with special reference to epidemic/pandemic diseases <p>Unani System of medicine is one among the oldest systems practiced all over the world. Hippocrates, father of medicine also known as father of epidemiology was the first who had written about the diseases which spread as epidemic or pandemic. After him Galen had mentioned the prevention and management of pandemic/epidemic diseases, and given several drugs for its management. A large number of Unani crude drug and compound formulations have been mentioned in the context of the prevention and management of <em>Waba’i Amrad</em>.&nbsp; Mostly all the <em>Waba’i Amrad</em> have pyrexia with other symptoms according to the involvement of systemic organs. One of the most important formulation is <em>Taryaq-i-Waba‘i</em>, a poly herbal pharmaceutical preparation, in the form of Pills (<em>Huboob</em>), and is cited by almost all the physicians of Unani Medicine viz; Jalinus, Azam Khan, Ajmal Khan, Kabiruddin etc. in their treatises.&nbsp; In Unani system of medicine, <em>Amrad-i-Waba‘i</em> is described under a broad term which encompasses various contagious diseases which occurs due to impairment of environmental conditions related to air, and water. This compound formulation contains four ingredients, includes Aloe, Myrrh, Crocus and rose water. It is indicated as antidote, anti-epidemic and used for the treatment of epidemic fever, poisonous bites etc. There is no any scientific study has been done on the formulation but it is used by Unani practitioners since time immemorial. So here a brief description of the compound and its ingredients on the scientific basis is being presented for further study on the basis of <em>Amrad-i-Waba‘i</em>.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Taryaq-i-Waba‘i</em>, Epidemic/Pandemic, <em>Crocus sativus</em>, Unani Medicine.</p> Mohd Afsahul Kalam, Abdul Haseeb, Mohd Sheeraz Mushtaq, Zaffar Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Kasni (Cichorium intybus): A Unani Hepatoprotective Drug <p><em>Kasni </em>(<em>Cichorium intybus Linn.</em>) is a powerful hepatoprotective and nephroprotective drug which has been extensively used in Unani System of Medicine. It is commonly known as chicory in English language. It is an erect perennial herb of the dandelion family Asteraceae. There are two types of <em>Kasni</em> depending on colour of the flowers which are usually bright blue and white or pink rarely. Chicory consists of a dietary fibre called as Inulin which is very useful in treating diabetes and constipation. As per Unani classical literature, it has been extensively used as <em>Mufatteh Sudud</em> (Deobstruent), <em>Musaffi Dam</em> (Blood Purifier), <em>Muqawwi Kabid</em> (Hepatic Tonic), <em>Muqaiwwi Meda </em>(Tonic for Stomach), <em>Waram e Meda</em> (Gastritis), <em>Amraz e Kabid</em> (Liver Disorders), <em>Ghisyan</em> (Nausea and Vomiting), <em>Amraze Kulliya</em> (Kidney Diseases), etc. The root of <em>Kasni</em> possesses various properties such as Aperient, Cholagogue, Deobstruent, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Resolvent. Its leaves’ decoction is used as lithotriptic and also useful in elimination of internal mucus. This paper gives an overview of types, phytochemical studies, pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of <em>Kasni</em> as per Unani classical literature and current scientific studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Kasni</em>, <em>Cichorium intybus Linn.</em>, Unani System of Medicine, Hepatoprotective, Unani drug.</p> , Anju, Ghazala Javed, Rasikh Javaid, Farah Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Recent Trends, Opportunities and Challenges in 3D Printing Technology for Personalize Medicine <p>The scrutiny of medical devices industry as well as pharmaceutical industry for its application in health care industry on different platform is captured the 3D printing technique.&nbsp; 3D printing technology withstand for a very long duration only because of the approval of medical devices, 3D printed tablets and also with the advent of USFDA guideline on technical consideration. This technology is specific to devices utilizing preservative manufacturing. Many thoughts are triggered by 3D printing this technology and for successful delivery of intended product which is necessarily take into a consideration. In this review paper expectation limitations of some regulatory companies, Advantages, disadvantages, what type problems are arises while establishing this setups for drug product production, method, application, and manufacturing risk are represented. It also gives information about the current status of 3D printing technology in research and development of drug products.&nbsp; For the fabrication of novel solid dosage form a number of 3D printing technology have been developed. This review is mainly focused on describing different technology used for the application of 3D printing in pharmaceutical industry.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: - </strong>3D printing technology, recent trend, Opportunities, personalize medicine, challenges, future.</p> Shrikrishna T. Mule, O.G. Bhusnure, S.S. Waghmare, Mamta R. Mali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Review on Life Cycle Management Approach on Asset Qualification <p>All equipment’s used in the production of products shall be properly Validated, Qualified and Calibrated to demonstrate that it is suitable for its intended purpose. Qualification is an important aspect of the pharmaceutical quality system. When the equipment is properly qualified, verified and maintained, there is the possibility of Consistent performance of the equipment. A well designed qualification program saves valuable time and cost. Qualification is called a cyclic process because it is a never ending process. Appropriate documentation of the qualification program is very important as lack of the documented evidence does not give any meaning to qualification (Not documented it means not done).&nbsp; The current programs and procedures of equipment qualification used within any pharmaceutical and bioscience industry are based on ‘regulatory requirements’, ‘voluntary standards’, ‘vendor practices’, and ‘industry practices’. The output is considerable variation in the way any pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies approach for the laboratory equipment. The lifecycle management approach of equipment qualification covers entire life cycle for the specification, design, manufacturing, installation, commissioning, qualification (4Qs Model DQ, IQ, OQ, PQ), operation &amp; maintenance of equipment in a risk based life cycle management approach. The goal of any regulated pharmaceutical and bioscience company is to provide reliable and valid data suitable for its intended purpose. Main goal of equipment qualification is to form the basis for written procedures for production and process control which are designed to assure that the drug products have the SISPQ (Safety, Identity, Strength, Purity and Quality)</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Validation, Calibration, Life cycle management approach, Qualification (4Qs Model- DQ, IQ, OQ &amp; PQ), SISPQ (Safety, Identity, Strength, Purity and Quality)</p> Mamta R. Mali, O.G. Bhusnure, Shrikrishna T. Mule, S.S. Waghmare ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Epigenetics: Pharmacology and Modification Mechanisms Involved in Cardiac, Hepatic and Renal Disease <p>For a long time scientists have tried to describe disorders are due to genetic as well as environmental factors. In the past few years, revolution in technology that has made it possible to decipher the human genome. Epigenetics explains the capability gene expression regulation without modifying the genetic sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms are rooted changes in molecules, or nuclear characteristics that can alter gene expression without altering the sequences of DNA, i.e. DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs. Learning of the fundamental epigenetic modification allowing gene expression as well as cellular phenotype are advanced that novel insights into the epigenetic control of cardiovascular disease, hepatic disease, as well as chronic kidney disease are now emerging. From a half of century ago, in human disease the role of epigenetics has been considered. This subject has attracted many interests in the past decade, especially in complicated diseases like cardiovascular disease, hepatic disease as well as chronic kidney disease. This review first illustrates the history and classification of epigenetic modifications and the factors (i.e. genetic, environment, dietary, thought process and lifestyle) affecting to the epigenetics mechanisms. Likewise, the epigenetics role in human diseases is think out by targeting on some diseases and at the end, we have given the future perspective of this field. This review article provides concepts with some examples to describe a broad view of distinct aspects of epigenetics in biology and human diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: -</strong> Epigenetics, DNA methylation, Histone modifications, microRNAs and Gene expression and Disease.</p> Sagar. S. Waghmare, O.G. Bhusnure, M. R. Mali, S.T. Mule ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0500