Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> editor.jddt@gmail.com (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) editor.jddt@gmail.com (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Mon, 15 Feb 2021 02:06:01 -0600 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Formulation development and characterization of in-situ gel of Rizatriptan Benzoate for intranasal delivery http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4685 <p>The present investigation was aimed to formulate and characterize ion-activated in-situ gel loaded with Rizatriptan Benzoate (RIZ) for intranasal administration for brain targeting. The gel was further optimized for process and formulation parameters by using 32 factorial design. The optimized batch having the concentrations of gellan gum and HPMC E15 LV 33.83 mg and 9.6 mg respectively. Gel strength and mucoadhesive strength of the optimized formulation were found to be 32.54 sec and 2580.50 dynes/cm2 respectively. Moreover, improved in-vitro and ex-vivo release profile of in-situ gel were observed in comparison to drug solution. In a nutshell, the developed formulation holds a great promise in overcoming the limitation associated with currently marketed RIZ formulations and illustrates the potential use of ion-activated in-situ gel to administer the drug by nasal route for brain targeting.</p> <p>Keywords: In-situ gel, Rizatriptan benzoate, Ion-activated, Gellan gum, HPMC E15 LV, Brain delivery, Migraine</p> Jalaram H Thakkar, Shailesh T. Prajapati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4685 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Impact of Digitalization in the Eye Strain during Covid-19 Lockdown Period: An Epidemiological Study http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4672 <p>Background: Over past few months due to COVID-19 lockdown, our society has been in indoor settings where the education, work and entertainment are through digital platform. This created an increase in rate of digital eye strain. Method &amp; materials: An epidemiological observational study conducted during lockdown period among people of Kerala with a structured and validated questionnaire using Google form. People with age ≥ 18 years, using digital screen on continuous basis were included in the study.Inform consent were collected from the participants before the survey.The statistical analysis were done using SPSS software. Results and Discussions: A total of 584 were participated in the study where more than 86% reported at least one symptom. Smart phone and computer were the major platform used by participants mainly for learning and entertainment.31% of participants were continuously using digital screen for &gt;2hours.One fourth of participants were using the screen for &gt;9 hours and a 20% uses the screen in dark room or dim light for &gt;5 hours. 66% had mild and 2.2% had severe symptoms.Headache was the common symptom found followed by eye pain and neck/shoulder/joint pain. Females were found to be more prone to develop CVS. Headache, eye redness, burning, etc. were correlated with duration of use. Conclusion: The digital screens demands high visual strain, much attention and care should be taken for vision problems and related issues.Since we are depending on digital screens for many of the daily activities, the information related to CVS and associated discomfort along with the prevention strategies should be explained by health professionals.</p> <p>Keywords: Digital Eye Strain, Computer vision syndrome, Lockdown, COVID-19</p> Johnson V. Babu, Suja Abraham, Minnu J. Biju, Joicy Jose ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4672 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Extent of Pharmacotherapy in Covid-19: An Observational Study in a Dedicated Hospital in Bangladesh http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4682 <p><em>Objective:</em>&nbsp;With the rapid increase in the rate of infection, repurposing use of many drugs like antivirals, antibiotics, LMWH, steroid, oxygen therapy were considered as an option to find promising anti-COVID therapeutics. In this study, we aim to observe the extent and variety of drugs used in different clinical categories of COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital in Bangladesh. To observe the requirement of oxygen therapy according to severity was also a prime objective to reveal the overall trend, frequency, and pattern of pharmacotherapy in a COVID-dedicated hospital.</p> <p><em>Materials and method:</em>&nbsp;A total of 1348 patients were admitted, of whom 473 were included in this single-center retrospective study. The critical group consists of 99 ICU patients, the severe group has 38, moderate was 82 and mild group 254 cases, admitted in the general ward. Hospital records of each patient were screened and information about drug and supportive therapy were collected manually by the researchers in the data collection sheet. Data express in MS excel spreadsheet and result expressed in percentage.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Critical group received remdesivir (85.86%), favipiravir (27.28%), meropenem (92.93%), moxifloxacin (87.88%) dexamethasone (41.48%), Low Molecular Weight Heparin (98.99%). They also received supportive O2 therapy like High Flow Nasal Cannula (67.68%), Non-Invasive Ventilation (26.67%), and mechanical ventilator (6.06%). A severe group of patients receives the same group of drugs 97.27%, 5.26%, 60.53%, 47.37%, methylprednisolone (55.26%), and 100% LMWH. A moderate group of the patient received favipiravir (97.56%), cephalosporin (64.67%), LMWH (89.02%) and low flow O2 (97.36%) in a higher percentage. All patients of the mild group received doxycycline, ivermectin. Total 33 patients transfuse convalescent plasma.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Antiviral, broad-spectrum antibiotics, anti-protozoal, LMWH, corticosteroid, and oxygen therapy are the available treatment option against different clinical categories of admitted COVID-19 patients.</p> <p>Keywords: COVID-19, antiviral, antibiotic, steroid, O2 therapy</p> Rawshan Ara Perveen, Morshed Nasir, AFM Mohibur Rahman, Tahmina Zahan, Nadia Farha, ASM Salauddin Chaudhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4682 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Pattern of antibiotics resistance and phenotypic characterization of Multidrug resistant bacteria isolates in four hospitals of Littoral region, Cameroon http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4700 <p>Objective: To describe the pattern of antibiotics resistance and phenotypic characterization of Multidrug resistant bacteria isolates in four hospitals of Littoral region, Cameroon.</p> <p>Methods: We conducted a descriptive hospital based cross-sectional study from December 2018 to May 2019. A simple random sampling was used to swap 10 selected equipment and 10 materials in the mornings after disinfection but before the start of work in seven units. After inoculation in four agar media consecutively (Eosine Metyleine blue, Cled, Manitol salt agar and blood agar ) and incubated in appropriate conditions, the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility test.</p> <p>Results: Among 50.4% (119/236) showed positive bacteria growth, a total of 89 (13 species), predominant bacteria and those more likely to cause nosocomial infections were selected and tested each one to 18 antibiotics. There was high level of resistance to <em>Penicillin</em> (amoxicillin (77.5%) and Oxacillin (76.4%)), followed by <em>3G Cephalosporine</em> (Ceftazidime (74.2%)) and <em>Monobactam</em> (Aztreonam (70.8%)). Although the least level of resistance was observed in <em>Carbapenem</em> (imipenem (5.6%)). The overall prevalence of MDRB was 62.9% (56/89). MRSA were the mostly detected 57.5 % (30/89), followed by ESBL 10.1% (9/89). Military hospital of Douala and Emergency unit was the MDRBs dominantly contaminated area respectively 39.3% (22/56) and 17.9% (10/56).</p> <p>Conclusion: MDRB occurred to be a current public health problem as well as hospital surfaces are worrying reservoir that can be spread to patient, health professionals and visitors.</p> <p>Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, susceptibility test, multidrug-resistant bacteria, Hospital facilities, Units, Littoral Region-Cameroon</p> Merlin Jonas Wandji Takemegni, Assob Nguedia Jules clement, Ateudjieu Jérôme, Enow Orock George, Mbopi-Keou Francois-Xavier, Ngowe Ngowe Marcelin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4700 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 An Evaluation of Medication Adherence to Antidiabetic Drugs: A Prospective Study http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4701 <p>Adherence to prescribed medication is an imperative issue which can be directly linked with the management of diabetes mellitus. WHO identifies poor adherence is the most significant cause of uncontrolled blood sugar level. A prospective observational study was conducted in in-patients admitted to general medicine department diagnosed with diabetes mellitus from September 2019 to February 2020. Data was collected from case sheets of patients for age, gender, and socio- economic data. Informed consent was obtained from patients or bystanders before study. Direct interview was conducted with patients using standardized questionnaire known as MMAS-8. Patient’s adherence to medications was assessed using scores obtained from the adherence scale. Among 100 in-patients 62 (62%) patients were male and 38 (38%) patients were female. Most of the patients had low adherence among both genders. Patients under age group of 41-60 years were more (58%) in which 46% had low adherence. It was observed that, married patients were more with low adherence (58%) followed by unmarried. When taking account of education of the patient, graduates and above were only 22 patients (22%) but most of them (16% ) had moderate/high adherence. Education of the patients had a significant positive correlation (i.e., p value = 0.0000002) between low adherence and high adherence of patients. This study showed that the adherence to anti-diabetic medications in diabetic patients were very less. It needs to be continuously evaluated in order to reduce complications and improve quality of life of patients.</p> <p>Keywords: Medication adherence, MMAS-8, Uncontrolled diabetes</p> Nimmy N John, V J Arjun, DARATH DAVID, H. Doddayya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4701 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Muco-adhesive buccal tablets of candesartan cilexetil for oral delivery: preparation, in-vitro and ex-vivo evaluation http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4547 <p>Candesartan cilexetil (CC) is an angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB). The antihypertensive effect of CC 4-16 mg/day was as great as that of other once-daily dosage regimens. Candesartan cilexetil has high first-pass metabolism and low oral bioavailability. The bioavailability of such drugs may be significantly improved if delivered through the buccal route; hence mucosal delivery is one of the alternative methods of systemic drug delivery. This study’s objective was to develop mucoadhesive buccal tablets of candesartan cilexetil using carbopol-934P, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Eudragit RLPO, and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (Na-CMC) as mucoadhesive polymers. Prepared CC buccal tablet formulations were evaluated for an optimized system based on physicochemical properties, ex-vivo residence time, in-vitro, and ex vivo permeation studies. The evaluation parameters of the tablets were within the acceptable Pharmacopoeial limits. However, the swelling and bio-adhesive time were increased with increasing polymer concentrations. The in-vitro release research shown that buccal tablets with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (Na-CMC) exhibited a higher release than all other formulations and have been considered as optimized CC formulation. The release mechanism from kinetic methods suggests that the drug release follows zero-order kinetics with a diffusion mechanism. Further, <em>in-vivo</em> research in animal fashions is required to prove the bioavailability performance of the formulation.</p> <p>Keywords: Candesartan cilexetil, mucoadhesive buccal tablets, first-pass metabolism, bioavailability.</p> Kumara Swamy Samanthula, Agaiah Goud Bairi, CB Mahendra Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4547 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Improvement of Physicochemical and Solubility of Dipyridamole by Cocrystallization Technology http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4696 <p>The aim of this study was to develop a pH-independent release formulation of dipyridamole (DP) by the combined use of pH-modifier technology and cocrystal technology tartaric acid (TA) was selected as an appropriate pH-modifier in terms of improving physicochemical properties and dissolution behavior of DP under neutral conditions. Molecular docking method was used to identify the suitable conformer.&nbsp; Upon optimization of the ratio of TA to DP (molar ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) was prepared by a solvent assisted griding method. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that formation of DP-TA co crystals supported by supported by powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. Spectroscopic analysis suggested that there might be inter-molecular interaction among DP and TA resulting in pH independent dissolution behavior of drug substance. The study confirmed the selection of proper coformer and exhibited enhanced physicochemical, solubility and stability of the Dipyridamole cocrystals. Hence, based upon results it revealed that cocrystallization helps in improving the physicochemical properties of the API.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dipyridamole, Coformer, Molecular docking, Radar chart, solvent assisted griding, Cocrystals</p> Ashwini Gawade, Ashwin Kuchekar, Sanjay Boldhane, Akshay Baheti ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4696 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Development of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Method for Quantitation of Gallic Acid in Normacid Syrup: A Poly Herbal Formulation http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4546 <p>Normacid syrup consisiting of 17 ingredients, used in the treatment of hyperacidity and gastritis. Gallic acid is one of the phytoconstituent present in Normacid syrup- a poly herbal formulation. In the present study an attempt has been made to develop a HPTLC method for quantitative estimation of gallic acid in dried fruits used in formulations. This HPTLC method was found to be reproducible, accurate, precise and detect gallic acid at nanogram level. The developed HPTLC method would be an important tool in the quality control method of poly herbal formulation.&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: HPTLC, Polyherbal, Gallic acid, Gastritis</p> Kinjal H Shah, Rajeshree Makwana ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4546 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Mirabilis jalapa Flower Extract as Therapeutic Agent and Cellular Delivery by Nanoparticles http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4549 <p>Bio friendly green modest syntheses of nanoparticles are the present research in the extremity of nanotechnology. This study has been undertaken to explore the determinants of iron nanoparticles from 1 mM FeSO<sub>4</sub> solution through profuse concentration of aqueous flower extract of <em>Mirabilis jalapa</em> reducing besides immobilizing agent. The attribute of iron nanoparticles was studied by using UV-VIS spectroscopy SEM and XRD. The XRD spectrum of the iron nanoparticles established the presence of elemental copper signal. Green synthesized iron nanoparticle manifests the zone of inhibition against isolated human pathogenic (Streptococcus species, Bacillus species, Staphylococcus species, Klebsiella species and E. coli) bacteria. The analytical chassis contains the flower pigment betalain the natural food dye resources can efficiently use in the production of iron nanoparticle and it could be utilized in various fields in therapeutics and nanotechnology.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Nanoparticles, <em>Mirabilis jalapa</em>, UV-VIS spectroscopy, SEM- XRD.</p> C R Rathi, S. N. Suresh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4549 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 An Introspection on the need of medication compliance in geriatric patients with hypertension http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4747 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Medication compliance is consequential part of treatment success. Medication non- compliance in geriatric patients leads to substantial worsening of disease, increased healthcare costs, and death.&nbsp; Financial constraints and adverse events or side effects associated with non-compliance can be avoided by improving medication compliance. <strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the level of medication compliance in geriatric patients and to analyse factors causing non-compliance to medications. <strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study was carried out from May 2020 to July 2020 in a rural area of South India. 150 geriatric patients (aged &gt;60 years) attending the Non- Communicable Disease (NCD) clinics in Primary Health Centres (PHC) were interviewed using validated questionnaires. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 150 geriatric participants with Hypertension were assessed for the level of compliance for long term medications. Maximum numbers of participants were males (54%) and majority were found in the age group of 61-70 (42%) and good compliance was observed in 63% of the participants and suggests that the compliance level has decreased progressively with increasing age. Good compliance was seen in subjects with up to 2 medications (55%) compared to more than 2 medications (25%). &nbsp;The level of compliance was good in 47%, moderate in 35% and poor in 18% of the participants. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study shows poor compliance to the prescribed medication among geriatric subjects with chronic diseases. Different strategies should be used to increase medication compliance in geriatric patients to achieve better outcomes in their health status.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Medication compliance, Hypertension, geriatric patients</p> S Nivya, Nimmy N John, Aksa Maria Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4747 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Determinants of adherence to ARVs in HIV+ women enrolled in the PMTCT program in the West and North Regions of Cameroon http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4712 <p><strong>Background</strong>: According to UNAIDS 2019, 52% of people worldwide living with HIV is on antiretrovirals (ARVs), HIV positive women representing 80% of them. This study aimed at highlighting the determinants of adherence to ARVs for HIV positive women enrolled in PMTCT programs in the West and North Regions of Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was carried out from February to September 2019 in three treatment centres in the West (Bafoussam Regional Hospital and Dschang District Hospital) and North (Garoua Regional Hospital) regions in Cameroon. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered face to face and encoded in Excel 2013, then analyzed using SAS version 7.8. P-values &lt; 0.05 were considered statistically significant</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: One thousand (1000) women were interviewed. The mean age was 17 ±2 years (Range: 12 – 67 years); 231 (23.1%) were single. Overall, the prevalence of ART-adherence was 68.6%. After multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression; <em>having one HIV-infected children</em> (aOR=60.9; 95%CI=[7.6; 489.1]; P=0.001), <em>non-disclosure of serological status with the spouse/boyfriend</em> (aOR=25.2; 95%CI=[9.2; 68.9]; P&lt;0.001), <em>not being educated</em> (aOR=7.7; 95%CI=[4.4; 13.3]; P&lt;0.001); and <em>taking ARVs once or less daily</em> (aOR=50; 95%CI=[20.0; 100.0]; P&lt;0.001) were four risk factors for non-adherence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: ART-adherence among Cameroonian pregnant women is still very far below UNAIDS target (95%), with four potential key determinants identified. As we are progressively moving towards the elimination of HIV vertical transmission in 2030 as advocated by UNAIDS, local policies should be reinforced in order to consolidate the strides made so far.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: HIV, PMTCT, Pregnancy, Adherence, option B+, Cameroon.</p> Armand Tiotsia Tsapi, Eric Defo Tamgno, Émeline Zogning Makemjio, Ezechiel Ngoufack Jagni Semengue, Ghyslaine Bruna Djeunang Dongho, Efeutmecheh Sangong Rose, Hervé Davy Tongue Kamga, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Gianluca Russo, Martin Sanou Sobze ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4712 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Identification of potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 from Artemisia annua compounds by In silico evaluation and their density functional theory (DFT) http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4702 <p>The genus Artemisia has recognized medicinal value and its use by humans Dates back to centuries ago. With the appearance of the new coronavirus, end of 2019, several countries have recommended the use of herbal teas consisting mainly of <em>Artemisia</em>. The individual analysis of the constituents of this species is crucial to characterize and optimize its antiSARS-Cov-2 action. We evaluated by molecular docking the inhibitory action of major compounds of the Artemisia genus (Artemisinin, Arteannuin B, Alpha Thujone, P-Hydroxyacetophenone, Fisetin, Cirsimaritin, Capillin, β-Sitosterol, and Quercetin) against three targets namely SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mp), SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) and human furin protease (HF protease). The two flavonols, quercetin and fisetin, have the best binding energies with the three targets. Quercetin/Fisetin possesses binding energy of -7.17/-6.9, -6.3/-6.15 and – 5.98/- 5.49 kcal/mol with MP, RBD and HF protease respectively. Their physicochemical properties meet the requirements of an oral active principle and are not toxic according to predictive simulations. Thereby DFT calculation has been used to analyze the electronic and geometric characteristics of these two compounds. The gap energies were also deduced for the stable structure and their reactivity. The abundance of Quercetin in different plants may be another advantage in the use of this bio-compound in the treatment of coronavirus.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Artemisia annua</em>, DFT, Docking Molecular, SARS-Cov-2, Quercetin and Fisetin</p> Abdirahman ELMI, Ahmed Said MOHAMED, Nazia SIDDIQUI, Syad AL JAWAD, Moustapha Nour, Idriss MIGANEH, Saleem JAVED ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4702 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Corona Viruses and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4742 <p><strong>Major histocompatibility complex (</strong>MHC) is consisted of cluster of genes known as human leukocyte antigen HLA, these genes are committed to process and present antigens to T lymphocyte. Corona viruses, belonging to a genus of the corona viridae family, are enveloped viruses containing single stranded RNA 27-32 kb. This study was conducted to highlight some observations that may help other researcher for rapid research advances; the new corona virus genome sequence was obtained from Virus pathogen database, the spike protein (surface glycoprotein)&nbsp; was aligned with&nbsp;&nbsp; SPIKE_CVHSA Spike glycoprotein OS=Human SARS coronavirus OX=694009 GN=S PE=1 SV=1 which was retrieved from Uniprot data base Distribution of HLA alleles was obtained from allele frequencies database, IEDB server was used for MHC 1 prediction. The distribution of HLA-A alleles among population revealed that, the most common wasHLA-A*11:01. The affinity prediction of HLA-A*03:01(AAAYFVGYLK) and HLA-A*11:01(AAYFVGYLK) alleles to the spike peptide were positive.&nbsp; The two positive predicted peptides for both 2 alleles showed mutation of K245Q, This mutation may affect the binding affinity of the protein peptides to HLA-A alleles.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>HLA. MHC, alleles, Corona viruses, SARS, APS</p> Nihad Elsadig Babiker, Alsadig Gassoum, Sawsan A. Hamed, Sara Elsadig Babiker, Imad Fadl-Elmula ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4742 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 QSAR and docking studies of 3, 5-dimethylpyrazole as potent inhibitors of Phosphodiesterase-4 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4718 <p>A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study was performed to develop a model on a series of 3, 5-dimethylpyrazole containing furan moiety derivatives which exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against PDE4B. The obtained model has correlation coefficient (r) of 0.934, squared correlation coefficient (r<sup>2</sup>) of 0.872, and leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation coefficient (Q<sup>2</sup>) value of 0.733. The predictive power of the developed model was confirmed by the external validation which has (r<sup>2</sup>) value of 0.812. These parameters confirm the stability and robustness of the model to predict the activity of a new designed set of 3,5-dimethyl-pyrazole derivatives (I-XV), results indicated that the compound III, V, XIII, and XV showed the strongest inhibition activity (IC<sub>50</sub> = 0.2813, 0.5814, 0.6929, 0.6125μM, respectively) against PDE4B compared to the reference rolipram with (IC<sub>50</sub>=1.9μM). Molecular docking was performed on a new designed compound with PDE4B protein (3o0j). Docking results showed that compounds (X and IX) have high docking affinity of -36.2037 and -33.2888 kcal/mol respectively.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: QSAR, molecular docking, pyrazole derivatives, PDE4 inhibitors, anti-inflammatory.</p> Hiba Hashim Mahgoub Mohamed, Amna Bint Wahab Elrashid Mohammed Hussien, Ahmed Elsadig Mohammed Saeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4718 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Drug Utilization Evaluation of High Alert Medications in Intensive Care Units of Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4749 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The utilization of HAMs is crucial in emergency and intensive care departments, as they can cause a significant amount of damage to the patient and health care members if we could not follow the standard treatment guidelines. Drug utilization evaluation/review involves a comprehensive review of the patient’s prescription and medication data before, during, and after dispensing to ensure appropriate medication decision making and positive patient outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was taken up given finding the utilization patterns and rectifying the issues with the usage of high alert medications (HAMs) and improving their utilization.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months at a south Indian tertiary care hospital. Treatment guidelines were prepared to compare the actual drug use. Data were collected both retrospectively and prospectively by patients and care taker’s interview, medication chart review, and discussion with prescribers and applied WHO DUE indicators to evaluate utilization patterns.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of 362 cases, 57.73 % were males/ and the majority geriatrics. Among all HAMs Insulin is frequently prescribed (34.5 %) and the costly drug is Enoxaparin. Generic names were used in writing prescriptions and parenteral formulations were mostly used. Around 9 ADRs were identified and managed, and a total of 133 moderate to severe Drug-Drug Interactions were found, of them, only 2 were actual.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> With this study, we conclude that the use of HAMs was found to be appropriate as per the guidelines as we observed very few DRPs with the study drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: HAM, DRP’s, DUE, ICU, DDD</p> Meda Venkata Subbaiah, K Leela Prasad Babu, Dudekula Manohar, Adluru Sumalatha, Pinjari Mohammed, Budigireddy Mahitha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4749 Sat, 20 Feb 2021 11:59:39 -0600 Assessment of Risk Factors and Management Associated with Preterm Deliveries and their Outcomes in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4556 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Preterm is a major obstetrical challenge of health care. It is the top most cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality of neonatal deaths. The births of these neonates are at a greater risk of developmental disabilities, health and growth problems than neonates of full term.</p> <p><strong>Aim and objective:</strong> To assess the risk factors and management associated with preterm deliveries and their outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> “A prospective observational cohort study” was conducted over a period of 6 months on 80 Preterm subjects, who were enrolled based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. A detailed questionnaire was used to record socio-demographic, clinical profile and prescribing management. Statistical analysis was performed by percentage method using parameters like mean, standard deviation.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The impact of incidence range in the present study was 31.52%. Maximum preterm deliveries were observed in the age group of 18-23 years (44%). Multiparous woman was at more risk for preterm i.e., about 51%. The commonest risk factor for preterm was Anemia (45%) followed by Pre-eclampsia (24%). The treatment prescribed for preterm was Betamethasone, Tidilon, Magnesium sulphate, Progesterone. The commonest neonatal outcome was found to be low birth weight with KMC and supplements of vitamins, iron, calcium as a therapy for their better recovery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study suggests an urgent need for strengthening effective guidelines and appropriate counselling for prevention of preterm. Maintenance of good hygiene, adequate&nbsp;&nbsp; bed rest and proper antenatal care visits for the better outcomes.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> preterm, multiparous, risk factors, neonatal outcomes, antenatal care, cohort.</p> T. Lakshmi Susheela, Meda. Venkata Subbiah, M. Ahamadi Tabasum, P. Amreen Khan, M.V. Swetha Kumari, E. Kiranmai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4556 Sat, 20 Feb 2021 12:06:58 -0600 Stability Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Delamanid in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4566 <p>Delamanid is successfully used for treatment of MDR TB. A stability indicating analytical method has been developed and validated. In this study Delamanid was degraded under different stress test conditions as per International Conference on Harmonization. The degraded samples were used to develop a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the Delamanid. The Delamanid was well separated from degradation products using a reversed-phase Hypersil BDS C18 (250 mm × 4.6mm i.d., 5µm) column and a mobile phase comprising of 0.01M pH 2.70 Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile (pH 3.50) 70:30, pH of mobile phase was adjusted with Glacial acetic acid and other HPLC parameters were flow rate 1 mL/min, detection wavelength 254 nm and injection volume 10 µl. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, ruggedness and robustness. Results obtained after validation study indicating that the proposed single method allowed analysis of Delamanid in the presence of their degradation products formed under a variety of stress conditions. The developed procedure was also applicable to the determination of stability of the Delamanid in commercial pharmaceutical dosage form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <strong>&nbsp;</strong>Delamanid, stability indicating analytical method, HPLC</p> Advaita B. Patel, Deepa R. Patel, Dhaval M. Patel, Mansi Babaria ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4566 Fri, 26 Feb 2021 10:44:02 -0600 Evaluation of Efficacy of Cucumis melo in Gentamycin and CPD Induced Urolithiasis on Rats http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4568 <p>Evaluation of the efficacy of methanolic extract of <em>Cucumis melo </em>in urolithiasis induced by gentamycin and calculi producing diet on Wistar rats. Gentamycin (40 mg/kg, subcutaneously) and calculi-producing diet (CPD) was fed to induce urolithiasis on Wistar rats. The effect of oral administration of methanolic extract of <em>Cucumis melo </em>seed on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied and is compared with the effect of oral administration of Cystone as standard on Wistar rats. Gentamycin and CPD feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate deposition as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and oxalate. Supplementation with methanolic extract of <em>Cucumis melo </em>seed reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The results indicate that the seed of <em>Cucumis melo </em>is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>C. melo</em>, Hyperoxaluria, calcium oxalate deposition, cystone, hyperoxaluria, analysis of variance</p> Dhaval M Patel, Advaita B Patel, Bhumi R Patel, Deepa R Patel, Nishith K Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4568 Fri, 26 Feb 2021 11:00:17 -0600 Evaluation of the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Cassia occidentalis seeds in neutrophil adhesion test in Rats http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4569 <p>Evaluation of the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>Cassia occidentalis</em> seeds in neutrophil adhesion test in Rats. The effect of oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Cassia occidentalis</em> seeds on neutrophil has been studied and is compared with control group on rats. The differential leukocyte count (DLC) was performed by fixing the blood smears and staining with leucofine and percent neutrophils in each sample was determined. After the initial counts, blood samples were incubated with 80 mg/ml of nylon fibers for 10 min at 37ºC. Supplementation with hydroalcoholic extract of<em> Cassia occidentalis</em> seedss significantly decreased neutrophil adhesion. The results indicate that the seed of <em>Cassia occidentalis</em> is endowed with protected neutrophil adhesion.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Cassia occidentalis</em>, Neutrophil, analysis of variance </p> Dhaval M M Patel, Advaita B Patel, Bhumi R Patel, Riddhi D Trivedi, Deepa R Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4569 Fri, 26 Feb 2021 11:35:31 -0600 Modern Trends in Analytical Techniques for Method Development and Validation of Pharmaceuticals: A Review http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4515 <p>The process of drug development requires a suitable technique which helps the scientist to analyze the drug molecule is an accurate, precise, and easiest way. For the quantitative and qualitative estimation of drugs in analytical chemistry it is very important to identify the best method for method development.&nbsp; This study helps the author to understand the various analytical techniques available for the process of drug development which includes spectroscopy, chromatography, electrochemical techniques, electrophoretic, flow injection analysis, and hyphenated technique. All these methods contain different analytical process with a variety of separate techniques. Also, we discuss about the modern trend which are available, and implacable in all these methods to improve the analytical behavior of these techniques. In method development process the validation of document must be required in the form of accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection, linearity, and range is considered. So, this review article contains the brief summary of available analytical techniques, and the latest trend in method development, or the process of method validation, and development of method. The discussed methods in this review article were revealed by the scientist, and these techniques must require in new drug development process, which helps the person to utilize the potential of these techniques. Trend in the analytical chemistry to overcome the error in method development was necessary, and the latest trends in method development technique were useful to defeat errors in analytical techniques.</p> <p>Keywords: Analytical techniques, Modern trends, Process of method development, and validation.</p> Shivani Sharma, Navdeep Singh, Amar Deep Ankalgi, Arti Rana, Mahendra Singh Ashawat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4515 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 A Review on Gastro-Retentive Floating Microspheres http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4518 <p>The floating microsphere's purpose is to improve gastric retention time. Floating drug delivery systems are lower in bulk thickness than gastric juice and remain floating on gastric juice for a long period of time without impacting the gastric-emptying rate and increasing bioavailability. Gastro-retentive microspheres are particularly suitable for the continuous or late release of oral formulations with blending versatility to achieve various release patterns, low dose risk as a reproducible and short gastric retention time. The aim of this review is to address literature on the floating device, techniques, selection of suitable or inappropriate drug candidates for GRDDS, low density polymers used to swim over gastric fluid, processes, and floating microsphere assessment and application.</p> <p>Keywords: GRDDS, Floating system, Approaches, Polymer, Mechanism, Methods</p> Anuradha A. Birajdar, Madhuri T. Deshmukh, Rajkumar V. Shete ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4518 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Excipients, drug release mechanism and physicochemical characterization methods of Solid lipid nanoparticles http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4533 <p>From last thirty years, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) gain much importance as drug delivery vehicle for enhanced delivery of the drugs, proteins, nutraceuticals and cosmetics. SLNs defined as a submicron size range nanoparticle with below 1000 nm and are mainly composed of lipids and surfactants, capable of incorporating both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. SLNs also used as controlled systems, targeted delivery and altered therapeutic efficacy purpose. A wide variety of methods such as double emulsion, solvent evaporation, ultra sonication, high-pressure homogenization and microemulsion used for SLNs production. This review provides the significance of SLNs in drug delivery with highlighting on selection of excipients, drug release mechanism, principles and limitations associated with their physicochemical and surface morphological characterization.</p> <p>Keywords: Solid lipid nanoparticles, enhanced delivery, preparation, characterization, application.</p> Vasu Deva Reddy Matta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4533 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Hydrodynamically Balanced System: A Review http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4548 <p>The most suitable drug delivery route is oral delivery due to its easily administration, patient adherence/ patient capacitance etc. Several approaches have been made for maximizing the G.R.T such as high-density system, floating system, swelling &amp; expanding system and mucoadhesive &amp; bio adhesive system etc. the main motive of reviewing the article is to focus on the mechanism of HBS system, classification with new system such as raft forming system and hollow microsphere, its application, marketed preparation and evaluation study. The procedure of gastric emptying is a complex and may leads to uncertainty for <em>in vivo </em>performance of the DDS. To prevent this type of complex formation and uncertainty, hard work has been done to expand the retention time of DDS for half of the day. The FDDS are beneficial in such process.</p> <p>Keywords: HBS system, GRDDS, gastric residence time (G.R.T), raft forming systems, floating formulations, evaluation study.&nbsp; </p> Pawankumar H Yadav, Dipak P Kardile, Madhuri T Deshmukh, Rajkumar V. Shete ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4548 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 An Overview on Biomaterials: Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4723 <p>The development of biomaterials have existed from around half a century and manifest its use in different fields. Biomaterials are used in living creature body, looking on its biocompatibility nature. In recent years, advances of biomaterials are showing a marked presence in the fast growing fields of pharmaceuticals and medicines. According to their availability, different types of biomaterials like metal, ceramic, polymer and their composites are used for several purpose in the body. In this review article, types of biomaterials have been discussed with their advantages, disadvantages and recent applications in the pharmaceutical field such as implants used to mimic the structure and function of tissues, dental implants, wound healing, cell regeneration, regenerative medicines, delivery of drugs and different organ regeneration. Organ regeneration leading to replacement of organs such as heart, trachea and lungs etc. by use of specific biomaterials have been reported with the diagnosis of diseases and its treatment.</p> Nikita A Naidu, Kamlesh Wadher, Milind Umekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4723 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 A concise review on preparation methods used for the development of solid lipid nanoparticles http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4687 <p>Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are in submicron size range nanoparticles and are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials (mainly composed of lipids and surfactants) capable of incorporating both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. SLNs are also considered as substitute to other colloidal drug systems, also used as controlled systems and targeted delivery. SLNs can be considered as an alternative for oral drug delivery vehicle to improve the oral bioavailability of drugs, associated reduction of drug toxicity and stability of drug in both GIT and plasma. There are different techniques used for the preparation of SLNs. Generally, the preparation of SLNs and any other nanoparticle system necessitates a dispersed system as precursor; otherwise particles are produced through the use of a particular instrumentation. This review provides the summary on the techniques or methods used for the development of SLNs of poorly water soluble drugs for improved drug delivery.</p> <p>Keywords: Solid lipid nanoparticles, controlled delivery, precursor, techniques.</p> Vasu Deva Reddy Matta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4687 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Medicinal benefits and scientific justification of Commiphora mukul (Muqil): A review http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4550 <p><em>Commiphora mukul</em> (<em>Muqil</em> or <em>Guggul),</em> oleo-gum, has been in use for thousands of years as a medicine in Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems. It was primarily used for swellings, inflammation, piles, arthritis and urinary disorders. Among its various types <em>Muqil-I-Arzaq</em>, a gum, having reddish hue is considered to be the best form of <em>Muqil</em> for medicinal purposes. It has been revealed to inhibit the nuclear factor-kb, a regulator of inflammatory response, and act as a potent antagonist to the receptors of androgens, mineralocorticoides, and glucocorticoides. <em>Muqil</em> is a versatile herb with diverse medicinal benefits which demand scientific validation. A coherent review of properties, medicinal benefits, traditional uses and scientific studies&nbsp;of <em>Muqil</em>, along with the overall processes involved from collection to consumption is judiciously described in this paper. The aim of this review is to provide a base for multiple research works, validating <em>Commiphora mukul</em> in different chronic ailments.</p> <p>keywords:&nbsp; <em>Commiphora mukul, </em>Inflammation, <em>Muqil, </em>Nuclear factor-KB, Unani</p> Shabir Ahmad Bhat, Shameem Ahmad Rather ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4550 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology on Terminalia belerica (Bibhitaki) http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4739 <p><em>Terminalia belerica </em>Roxb. is belonging to family combretaceae, which is growing widely throughout the Indian&nbsp; subcontinent,&nbsp; Bangladesh,&nbsp; Nepal,&nbsp; Sri-Lanka, and&nbsp; South East Asia. It is is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. There are different phytoconstituents Glucoside, Tannins, ellagic acid, ethylgallate, gallylglucose, chebulanic acid which are responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. It is mainly used as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypertensive and hepatoprotective agent. This review article sites the information of different pharmacological activities of <em>Terminalia belerica</em> which may be source for further research studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phytoconstituents, pharmacologicalactivities, <em>Terminaliabelerica, </em>therapeutic actions.</p> Panshul Sharma, Kapil Kumar Verma, Hans Raj, Nutan Thakur ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4739 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 A Review on Therapeutic Uses of Terpenoids http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4523 <p>Terpenes are a huge and assorted class of natural mixes, created by an assortment of plants, especially conifers, other plants and by some insects. Terpenes regularly have a solid smell and may ensure the plants that produce them by deterring herbivores and by pulling in hunters and parasites of herbivores. Terpene are the essential constituents of the basic oils of numerous kinds of plan Essential oils are utilized generally as aromas in perfumery and for example, fragrant healing. Manufactured varieties and subsidiaries of regular terpenes extraordinarily extend the assortment of fragrances utilized in perfumery and flavors utilized in food added substances.</p> <p>Keywords: Terpene, Medicinal, Therapeutic.</p> B. S. Bisht, Harshita Bankoti, Tanuja Bharti ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4523 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Plate-Rich Plasma and its Utility in Clinical Conditions: A Systematic Review http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4721 <p>Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product derived from whole blood through the process of density gradient centrifugation which contains a concentrated form of a large number of platelets in a small volume of plasma. PRP has a higher concentration of growth factors than whole blood. These growth factors promote natural healing. PRP is becoming more popular as a treatment option for a broad spectrum of medical disorders. PRP has been studied but has received less attention. The objective of this literature review was to focus on the utility of PRP on various medical conditions and, to consolidate the available evidence on PRP for the practicing dermatological conditions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP), Leukocyte-and Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP), Red - Platelet-Rich Plasma (R-PRP), Injectable Platelet Rich Fibrin (i-PRF), Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), Platelet-poor plasma (PPP), Cytokines, Growth factors.</em></p> Saurabh Khare, Shruti Shrirang Dal, Suresh Lingam, V Veeramanikandan, Paulraj Balaji, Anil Hota, Jaianand Kannaiyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4721 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Efficacy and Safety of 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 Receptor Antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) for The Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients: A Review http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4554 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This review provides an update review of the efficacy and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in cancer patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The information was collected from electronic scientific search engines from PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The publication dates covered were from 2010 to 2020. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who achieved a complete response (CR), complete control (CC), no nausea, no emesis, or no rescue medication.The secondary endpoint was the percentage of patients who experience constipation related to 5-HT RA constipation, headache, diarrhea, or dizziness, as well as changes in heart rhythm.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Fourteen articles were identified. Palonosetron has the same effectiveness as granisetron as but more effective than ondansetron in the delayed phase and overall. Adverse effects that often occur due to the use of palonosetron, granisetron, and ondansetron are constipation and headache. Some of the articles also mentioned that palonosetron does not cause changes in heart rhythm but granisetron and ondansetron do cause changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) at certain doses.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Palonosetron has the same effectiveness as granisetron, and more effective than ondansetron in delayed, and overall phases. The use of palonosetron, granisetron, and ondansetron cause constipation and headaches at all doses, palonosetron does not cause ECG abnormalities whereas granisetron and ondansetron cause ECG changes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>palonosetron, ondansetron, granisetron, 5-HT<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;RAs, cancer, nausea, vomiting, CINV.</p> Nisaurrahmah Nisaurrahmah, Oktavia Sri, Ifora Ifora ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4554 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 Hydrotropic Solubilization: An Emerging Approach http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4724 <p>Drug development plays an important role in patient safety and effectiveness. The therapeutic suitability of a new drug depends on the solubility. The solubility of the sparingly soluble drug remains a problem in identifying new active compounds. Solubility plays an important role in achieving optimal drug concentration. Low solubility is not only a concern for the production of formulations, but also an obstacle from the outset when identifying active chemicals for therapeutic purposes. Due to its simplicity in terms of ease of administration and economy, the oral route is the preferred route of drug administration over other routes. Effective aqueous solubility is the first prerequisite for oral medication, since low solubility has poor absorption and bioavailability and unpredictable toxicity of the gastrointestinal mucosa. To avoid these crises, different methodologies are used to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, and hydrotropic solubilization is one of them. Hydrotropic agents have the potential to improve the solubility of water-insoluble drugs. In this review, we try to address hydrotropic solubilization methodologies.</p> <p>Keywords: Hydrotropy, Micelles, Solubility, Formulation.</p> Ashwin Bhanudas Kuchekar, Ashwini Gawade, Sanjay Boldhane ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4724 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 A Review on Pongamia pinnata (L.): Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4522 <p>Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre is one of many plants with different medicinal properties where all its components have been used in the treatment and prevention of many forms of ailments in many countries as traditional medicine. The plant extract shows anti-diarrhoeal, anti-fungal, anti-plasmodial, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperammonic, anti-lipoxidative, anti-oxidant and analgesic activities. For gums, teeth and ulcers, roots are used for cleaning. For bleeding piles, bark is used internally. Traditionally, different parts of the P. pinnata&nbsp; plant are said to be used to treat bronchitis, whooping cough, rheumatism, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gonorrhea and leprosy, to name a few. Oil is a source of biodiesel, an alternative, sustainable, nutritious and non-pollutant. The present Knowledge of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities according to parts of the Pongamia pinnata plant is discussed in this study.</p> <p>Keywords: Fabaceae, Pongamia pinnata, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties.</p> Akshay G. Fugare, Rajkumar V. Shete, Vishal S. Adak, Krishna Murthy G. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4522 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600 History of Ayurvedic System of Medicines: From Prehistoric to Present http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4689 <p>Ayurvedic system of medicine is considered the most ancient system of the world. In the prehistoric times medicinal plants were used by the various tribes. Evidence suggests that the people of Indus valley civilization followed this system of medicines. The Vedic and post Vedic period saw the rapid development of Ayurveda supported by the efforts of Charaka, Susrutra and Vagbhata etc. Buddhist monks played important role in the propagation of Ayurveda. However, the invasion of Muslims after 10th century destroyed Ayurveda and Unani system of medicines flourished in the country. Pre independence period again saw the emergence of Ayurveda. After Independence it attains new height with its incorporation into the Drug and Cosmetic Act. The preparation of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia helps in the standardization of Ayurvedic drugs to compete at global level with allopathic system of medicines.</p> <p>Keywords: ayurvedic system, Vedic and post Vedic period, Charaka, Susrutra and Vagbhata, Ayurvedic drugs</p> S. B. Tiwari, S. D. Singh, Amit Kumar Verma, Divyank Awasthi, Arun Kumar Rastogi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4689 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0600