Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> Antioxidant properties and subchronic toxicity of the standardized extract of LAMIC, a phytomedicine prototype based on aqueous extracts from trunk bark of Lannea microcarpa Engl and K. Krause http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3285 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study investigated the antioxidant activity and the 90 days subchronic toxicity of the standardized LAMIC phytomedicine prototype based on aqueous extracts from <em>Lannea microcarpa</em> trunk bark.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Three spectrophotometric methods were used to evaluated the antioxidant activity of LAMIC which were 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzolin-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. For the standardized LAMIC subchronic toxicity study, male and female Wistar rats were used by daily oral administration at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg bw consecutively for 90 days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The LAMIC extract exhibit better inhibitory activity against DPPH radical than ABTS radical with respective IC<sub>50 </sub>values of 45.38±3.21 µg/mL and 66.45±18.76 µg/mL, while FRAP assay exhibit antioxidant activity of 211.34±15.92 mmol EAA/g.</p> <p>Subchronic oral administration of LAMIC was well-tolerated at all tested doses. No behavioral and physiological changes and mortality were observed. The LAMIC extract did not present any impact on general hematological parameters and biochemical parameters. Moreover, no significant changes were raised in organ and body weight of treated groups compared to the Control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These results support that LAMIC prototype was a valuable source of natural antioxidants and no toxicity was associated to its long terms oral consumption in rats indicating a potential application as a cardiovascular protective formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>LAMIC–<em>Lannea microcarpa</em>–Standardization–Antioxidant–Subchronic toxicity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lazare Belemnaba Madi Soubeiga Geoffroy G. Ouédraogo Tata Kadiatou Traoré Mathieu Nitiéma Sylvain Ilboudo B. Mohamed Belemlilga Souleymane Compaoré Raïnatou Sondé/Boly Jean Claude Romaric Pingwendé Ouédraogo Salfo Ouédraogo Alphonsine Ramdé/Tiendrebéogo Noufou Ouédraogo Moussa Ouédraogo Sylvin Ouédraogo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 1 8 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3285 Evaluation of Analgesic Activities of 80% Methanol Leaf Extract of Solanum incanum L. (Solanaceae) in Mice http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3235 <p><em>Solanum incanum</em> Linnaeus is traditionally used for treatment of pain and other ailments. But there is no scientific evidence on its analgesic activity to-date. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic activities of 80% methanol leaf extract of <em>S.incanum </em>in mice. After extraction of the crude using 80% methanol, <em>S.incanum </em>extract was evaluated for analgesic activity in hot plate test and acetic-acid induced writhing test. Mice were randomly assigned to different groups and treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract and reference control groups (morphine 5mg/kg and Aspirin 150 mg/kg) and negative control were treated with 2% tween 80. In the hot-plate method, all doses of the extract and the standard drug of morphine prolonged the reaction time significantly (p&lt;0.05, or p&lt;0.01 or p&lt;0.001) as compared to negative control throughout the observation period. Prolongation of reaction time produced by 100mg/kg of the extract was lower (p&lt;0.01) compared to morphine, 200mg/kg, and 400mg/kg at 90 and 120 min. However, middle and higher dose exerts comparable result at 30, 60 and 90and 120 min in relation to the standard drug. In addition 80% methanol extract of <em>S.incanum </em>showed a significant protection (p&lt;0.05) against acetic acid induced writhing compared to negative control. The extract produced a significant analgesic activity with 55.6, 38.2 and 44.8% inhibition of number of writhing at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dose levels, respectively. In conclusion, this study clearly suggests that 80% methanol leaf extract of <em>S. incanum </em>is endowed with central and peripheral analgesic activity. Hence, the findings collectively uphold the traditional use of the plant for pain treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Analgesic, <em>S.incanum</em> , Hot plate, Acetic acid</p> Binyam Abera Abebe Ejigu Hailu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 9 14 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3235 Motility and chemotaxis of Escherichia coli in medium with attractant and repellent http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3532 <p>This study was conducted in order to satisfy the following objectives: (1) To compare the migration bands of <em>Escherichia coli</em>,<em> Bacillus megaterium</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> in Sugar, Indole and Motility (SIM) medium + chemotaxis medium (CM), SIM + attractant (glucose), SIM + repellent (alcohol) and SIM only; (2) To observe and compare the swimming behaviour of <em>E. coli</em> under the microscope in the presence of attractant and repellent; and (3) To compare chemotaxis of <em>E. coli</em> in the presence of attractant and repellent by capillary assay.&nbsp; Motility bands were observed in tubes with SIM + CM, SIM + attractant, SIM + repellent and SIM only that were inoculated with <em>E. coli </em>and <em>B. megaterium</em>. However, the motility band in SIM + repellent travelled less far as compared to SIM + CM and SIM + attractant. No motility bands were observed in tubes inoculated with <em>S. aureus</em>. Highest number of colonies (CFU/mL) were observed in capillary tubes dipped in attractant (3.7 x 10<sup>8</sup>), followed by CM (5.2 x 10<sup>7</sup>) and least in repellent (7.6 x 10<sup>6</sup>). Analysis of data showed that log CFU/mL in capillary tubes dipped in attractant (8.55±0.14) was significantly higher as compared to capillary tubes dipped in CM (7.64±0.29) and repellent (6.87±0.14).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Escherichia coli</em>, motility, chemotaxis, attractant, repellent</p> Alvin T Reyes Dave Ambita Jamie Louise Batalon Berna Lou Aba Angelbert Cortes Cherray Gabrielle Macabecha Andrew Montecillo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 15 18 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3532 Long-term maintenance therapy with Cyclosporine A in adults with generalized pustular psoriasis http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3535 <p>Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare and serious immune-mediated skin disorder that is characterized by a widespread eruption of sterile and subcorneal pustules.&nbsp; In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Cyclosporine A (Cy A) in treatment of 9 adults with drug-refractory GPP viz. topical Corticosteroids, retinoids, methotrexate and narrow-band ultraviolet light exposure (UVB).&nbsp; Initially; they were resuscitated as burn patients. Cy A was administered on day 1 at a dose of 100 mg twice daily either in the form of syrup or Neoral capsules.&nbsp; In most patients, skin lesions had healed by 6 weeks and the dose of Cy A was reduced to minimum to prevent further recurrence.&nbsp; Seven patients had required 50 mg twice daily and 2 were controlled with 50 mg am and 25 mg pm.&nbsp; On follow up, there was no serious relapse, liver and kidney disease.&nbsp; Minor complications included; hirsutism and dark skin (n: 5) and gingival hyperplasia (n: 2). Trial to replace Cy A with Tacrolimus (Prograf) failed to maintain remission.&nbsp; In conclusion; Cy A is a safe and effective treatment for GPP.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cyclosporin A, treatment, psoriasis, pustular.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid Al-Bader Shaima ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 19 21 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3535 Release of dipicolinic acid from spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3562 <p>The effect of eight pH suspensions (2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14) and four heating times (5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes) on the release of dipicolinic acid (DPA) from spores of <em>Geobacillus stearothermophilus</em> was evaluated. The pattern of DPA release from spores of the bacterium exhibited two peaks, one at pH 4 (41.75 ug/mL) and the second at pH 7 (43.25 ug/mL). One-way ANOVA showed that the DPA released at pH 4 and pH 7 was significantly higher as compared to other pH DPA values (p&lt;0.05). Maximum release of the acid from the spores of <em>G. stearothermophilus</em> was achieved after 30 minutes of autoclaving at 121 °C. The maximum level of DPA obtained was 177 ug/mL which was four times higher as compared to the maximum DPA released in the pH experiment. One-way ANOVA showed that the DPA released after 30 minutes autoclaving was significantly higher as compared to DPA released in other heating times (p&lt;0.05). Basing from the result obtained in the study of Rotman and Fields (1969), the variant that was used in this exercise was the smooth type because of the comparable peak of DPA at pH 7 and lower heat resistant with maximum release of DPA after 30 minutes of autoclaving at 121 °C.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Dipicolinic acid, <em>Geobacillus stearothermophilus</em>, spores, temperature, pH</p> Alvin T Reyes Dave Ambita Jamie Louise Batalon Berna Lou Aba Angelbert Cortes Cherray Gabrielle Macabecha Andrew Montecillo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 22 25 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3562 Formulation and Evaluation of Teneligliptin and Telmisartan Bilayer Tablets for the Treatment of Coexistent Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3537 <p>In the current scenario type two diabetes mellitus and hypertension have become prevalent in large number of population. But there are many patients which are suffering from Type II Diabetes Mellitus as well as hypertension. Such condition is called co-existent Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension. In the present work an attempt is made to treat co-existent type II Diabetes Mellitus and hypertension by formulating a Bilayer tablet of Teneligliptin and Telmisartan. Both drugs are sustained released to give a day long relief to the patients and to also reduce the dose frequency. Both the layers of the tablets were formulated by wet granulation method. The granules were tested for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility and Hausner’s ratio to check their efficacy. Eleven different types of formulations were made using various polymers and excipients with the drugs such as PVP K30, HPMC K4M, Starch, Crospovidone, Lactose, Mannitol, Talc and Magnesium Stearate. From these 11 formulations F6 showed better tablet characteristics and drug release rate than other formulations. Thus F6 is the best formulation in this study. Biological screening of the drugs combination of Teneligliptin and Telmisartan was also done to check the presence of antidiabetic activity of the combination which showed positive results.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: - Teneligliptin, Telmisartan, Sustained, Bilayer.&nbsp;</p> Gaurav S. Lodha Satyam Z Chemate ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 26 38 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3537 Anti-inflammatory activity of Schrebera Swietenioides Roxb. in cream formulation on CD68 expression in mice skin wound http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3541 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of <strong><em>Schrebera Swietenioides</em> </strong>alcohol leaf extract in cream composition in the expression of immunoglobulin CD68 (macrophage) during the wound healing process in the inflammatory stage of mice skin.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Amount of 12 two-months-old male mice were used between 30 and 40 g. To surgical procedures, wound skin incision was performed 2.0 cm in length until subcutaneous on the paravertebral of each animal. The treatment was carried under locally anesthetized with procaine cream. The mice were allotted into four groups of each, entire surface of each group wound covered by base cream control, sulfadiazine 0.1% cream, alcoholic leaves extract of <strong><em>Schrebera Swietenioides</em></strong> cream 10% and, 15%, respectively. All experiments were performed twice a day for 3 days. The wound healing was assayed in stained histological sections in immunohistochemical of the wounds. CD68 expression was investigated under a microscope.</p> <p>Amount of 12-month-old male mice between 30 and 40 g was used. For surgical procedures, a 2.0 cm skin lesion was also performed under the skin on the vertebrae surrounding each animal. Treatment was performed under local anesthetic with procaine cream. Rats were assigned to four groups each, the entire surface of each group of lesions covered by control cream, 0.1% sulfadiazine cream, alcohol leaf from Schrebera Swietenioides cream respectively at 10% and at 15%. All tests were performed twice a day for 3 days. The lesions were analyzed in sections of tissue with staining of wound immunochemistry. The expression of CD68 was studied under a microscope.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the cream from the 10% and 15% alcoholic leaves extract of <strong><em>Schrebera Swietenioides</em></strong> revealed moderate immune reaction to CD68 on wound healing.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We concluded that the alcoholic leaves extract cream of <strong><em>Schrebera Swietenioides</em> </strong>possesses anti-inflammatory activity in wound healing process of mice skin.</p> Piush Sharma Charanjeet Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 39 42 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3541 Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac Mouth Dissolving Tablet by QbD http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3538 <p>The purpose of this study was to develop fast dissolving tablets of Aceclofenac using different concentration of super disintegrants. Fast dissolving tablets of Aceclofenac were prepared by dry granulation technique using croscarmellose sodium together with avicel ph as superdisintegrants. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets by direct compression technique. These tablets were evaluated for drug content, weight variation, friability, hardness, wetting time and dispersion time. All the formulations showed low weight variation with dispersion time less than 90 seconds and rapid <em>in vitro </em>dissolution. The drug content of all the formulations was within the acceptable limits. The optimized formulation showed good release profile i.e. maximum drug being released at all-time intervals compared to other trial batches. It was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved dissolution could be prepared by dry granulation method of tablet.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Aceclofenac, fast dissolving tablet, dry granulation, super disintegrants.&nbsp;</p> Asish Dev Shravan Kumar Yadav S.K. Kar Smitapadma Mohanty Om Shelke ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 43 50 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3538 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Teak Wood Waste Biomass http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3307 <p>The present work reported the adsorption of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions on activated carbon prepared from teak wood waste. Biomass from teak wood were taken out and pulverized in a micro-pulverizing mill. The powder thus obtained was activated with 40% H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> and carbonized at 600 °C for 1 hour in an inert atmosphere. Physico-chemical characteristics such as &nbsp;functional groups and surface morphology of the activated carbon were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy and SEM analysis respectively. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the effects of Cr (VI) concentration, carbon dose, pH and time. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) was found to be 1.5 g/L at pH 3 and temperature 30±1 °C. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm best represented the equilibrium data and a pseudo-second order relation represented the adsorption kinetics.</p> Vijayalakshmi G B. Ramkumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 51 55 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3307 Daily Dietary Nutrition and Nutraceutical Intake in Agricultural Laborers of Hirakud Command Area, Sambalpur, Odisha, India http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3443 <p>Sambalpur is considered as the rice bowl of Odisha for its cultivation activities due to the presence of hydroelectric power house Hirakud Dam, with total capacity of&nbsp; 5,896,000,000 m<sup>3</sup>, 55&nbsp;km long and is one of the first major multipurpose river valley projects started after India's independence. It irrigates about 75,000&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;(19×10<sup>6</sup>&nbsp;acres) of land and therefore, is considered as a blessing to the farmer families. As because of cultivation and allied activities, Agricultural Laborers (ALs) constitute a large portion of the active work force. Study on the nutritional intake in this important fraction of population is lacking. Present study was an attempt to know the food consumption pattern and nutritional intakes of ALs in Hirakud command area of Sambalpur district, India. Data were collected from 300 ALs, consisting of 150 from each gender. Daily dietary pattern and nutritional intake of respondent were calculated through 24 hours dietary recall method. It was observed that ALs consume all most all the food varieties available in Odisha. Cereal consumption was 6.80 and 1.77 % excess than the recommend value dietary allowance (RDA) by Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR, in 1990). Except cereals, all other food consumption was below the RDA value in ALs. The intake of other food varieties in ALs was &gt; 60% deficit from the RDA values. Consumption of milk was 97% less in case of male ALs and 98 % less in case of female ALs in comparison to the values suggested in RDA. Similarly, consumption of all nutrients was less than RDA norms except Vitamin -C in case of male ALs. The consumption of Niacin and Vitamin -C was excess in case of female ALs. Alternate low cost food supply is suggested to compensate such insufficient nutritional uptake by ALs in the study area.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Food, nutrient intake, nutraceuticals, nutritional status, 24 hours recall method</p> Monalisa Pradhan Pravabati Guru BISWARANJAN PAITAL ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 56 61 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3443 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIDIABETIC, ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF LEAVES OF Filicium decipiens IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS. http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3516 <p>The Present study was undertaken with a view to evaluate the Phytochemical &amp; Pharmacological activities of the leaves of <em>Filicium</em> <em>decipiens </em>(Sapindaceae). &nbsp;The shade dried powdered plant material was subjected to successive soxhlet extraction with Petroleum Ether, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate and Ethanol. The various extracts were then subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which revealed the presence of flavanoids, saponins, tannins, phenols, sugars, lipids, alkaloids &amp; steroids. Selection of active extract for <em>in vivo </em>studies was based on preliminary phytochemical tests and <em>in vitro </em>glucose diffusion inhibition potential and accordingly ethanolic and chloroform extracts were chosen for further studies. Pharmacological screening included evaluation of antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of chloroform and ethanolic extracts (200mg/kg b.w) on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract was found to be more effective and brought about significant antidiabetic &amp; hypolipidemic potential. This was due to the presence of one or more phytoconstituents present in ethanol extract. Thus, the present study validates the traditional claim of the plant and endorses a scientific proof in future.</p> Elias Akila C Geetha Priya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 62 66 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3516 Formulation-Development and In-Vitro-In Vivo Evaluation of Gastroretentive Floating Tablet Incorporating Clarithromycin http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3559 <p>The objective of the work is to summarize the applicability, manufacturing possibilities, excipients and the types of floating drug delivery systems and to optimize a floating, mucoadhesive system using Clarithromycin as the drug aiming at the eradication of Helicobacter pylori having desired floating and drug release properties based on preliminary excipient examination. Direct compressed (DC) tablet was chosen as dosage form being a cost-effective technology for pharmaceutical industry requiring fewer procedures. Before the implementation of the pharmaceutical technological aims, analysis of critical factors influencing the manufacture was carried out. Reproducible manufacturing processes are required to achieve suitability and tablets uniformity to achieve the uniform properties of tablets, which could influence experimental parameters. Ishikawa diagram evaluation was created, which is a commonly used graphical method to identify factors resulting in an overall effect on product design and quality imperfection. The aim was to reveal affecting factors on uniformity of DC tablets in order to standardize all possible conditions and adjustments. Critical factors are indicated separately in particular method sections.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>H. pylori, Clarithromycin, Floating Tablets, <em>In Vitro</em> Evaluation, <em>In Vivo</em> Evaluation.</p> Gautam D. Mehetre A Dubey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 67 81 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3559 Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Fresh Aqueous Pink Petals of Indian Lotus-Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3565 <p>The genus <em>Nelumbo</em> is endowed with a number of medicinally important activities antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous, antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-obesity properties. Furthermore, <em>Nelumbo nucifera</em> flowers are served as healthy beverages to treat hypertension, cancer, diarrhea, fever, weakness, infection and body heat imbalance. It has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. Current research studies were carried out for evaluating the antioxidant, antidiabetic and antibacterial activities of fresh aqueous pink petals of <em>Nelumbo nucifera.</em> Antioxidant activities such as DPPH˙ radical, Superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical, ABTS<sup>●+</sup> radical cation, phosphomolybdenum reduction and Fe<sup>3+ </sup>reduction were carried out for fresh aqueous pink petals of <em>Nelumbo nucifera</em>. The maximum DPPH˙ radical scavenging activity was 88.33±0.47% at 300 µg/mL concentration and the IC<sub>50</sub> value was 131.68 µg/mL concentration. The maximum superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical scavenging activity was 86.76±0.31% at 120 µg/mL concentration and the IC<sub>50</sub> value was 21.31 µg/mL concentration. The maximum ABTS<sup>●+ </sup>radical cation scavenging activity was 69.55±0.26% at 30 µg/mL concentration and the IC<sub>50</sub> value was 10.82 µg/mL concentration respectively. The maximum Mo<sup>6+ </sup>reduction was 84.54±0.21% at 45 µg/mL concentration and the RC<sub>50 </sub>value of Mo<sup>6+ </sup>reduction was 25.79 µg/mL concentration. The maximum Fe<sup>3+ </sup>reduction was 56.00±0.38% at 300 µg/mL concentration and the RC<sub>50 </sub>value of Fe<sup>3+</sup> reduction was 177.30 µg/mL concentration respectively. The maximum alpha amylase enzyme inhibition was 66.37±0.10% at 300 µg/mL concentration and the IC<sub>50</sub> value was 63.84 µg/mL concentration respectively. The antibacterial activity of fresh aqueous pink petals of <em>Nelumbo nucifera</em> showed maximum zone of inhibition of 14 mm for <em>B. subtilis</em> and minimum zone of inhibition of 10 mm for <em>E. coli</em> at 375 µg/mL concentration.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antioxidant, Superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical, ABTS<sup>●+</sup> radical cation, Fe<sup>3+ </sup>reduction and alpha-amylase.</p> K Saraswathi C Sivaraj B Fransila P Arumugam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 82 88 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3565 Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activity of Catunaregam spinosa (Thumb.) Tirveng Extracts http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3363 <p><em>Catunaregam spinosa </em>leaves have been ethnopharmacologically accounted for acquiring various pharmacological properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of leaves of <em>C. spinosa.</em>The ethanolic extract was selected for this purpose based on phytochemical screening. Inflammation was inhibited at the dose of 200 mg/kg with percent inhibition of inflammation 32.06, 37.28 and 43.16 %, respectively, at 1, 3 and 5 h, while in egg albumin model % inhibition was found to be 47.81%. There was no significant analgesic activity seen in acetic acid induced writhing response method while significant effects were observed in the doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg on hot plate test. No antipyretic activity was shown by ethanolic extracts(25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) against Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Catunaregam spinosa</em>, Anti-inflammatory activity, Phytochemical screening, Ethanolic extract.</p> Hansa Saini Jayesh Dwivedi Himanhu Paliwal Udichi Kataria Priyanka Chauhan Rahul Garg ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 9 5 89 94 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3363 A novel spectrophotometric method development and validation of Tenagliptin in its Tablet dosages form http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3503 <p>The aim of present work was to develop a new, economical &amp; simple analytical method of Teneligliptin &amp; its validation as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline, which is a new antidiabetic drug that is used to treat Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetis Melitus (NIDDM) patients. A sensitive and specific Ultra Violet (UV) Visible method was developed &amp; the analysis was carried out by using Shimazdu 1800 Spectrophotometer, 0.1(N) NaOH was used as a solvent. The UV- Visible Spectrophotometric estimation was carried out at a λ max of 242 nm using 1cm thick quartz cell. Validation of the newly developed method was performed as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2R1 guideline in the following parameters: Calibration curve, Accuracy, Precision etc.&nbsp; Newly developed method obeys Beer’s-Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 5 - 25 μg / ml, whereas correlation coefficient value is less than 1. The percent amount of drug estimated by this developed method was 100.91 %, which is very close to 100 %. The validation parameters like Accuracy, Precision, Linearity, Range, Limit of detection (LOD) &amp; Limit of Quantification (LOQ) were studied for the developed method and was found to be within the limits.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Teneligliptin, Validation, Method, Spectroscopy etc.</p> Poulami Patra somsubhra ghosh Tathagata Roy B. V. V. Ravi kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 95 98 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3503 Individualized Homeopathic Treatment: Better Option in Management of Psoriasis http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3539 <p>Psoriasis vulgaris is a cutaneous, inflammatory disease manifested by aberrant immune response mediated by T-lymphocytes. The disease is characterized by keratinocyte hyper proliferation, improper differentiation, angiogenesis and dermic vasodilatation. Psoriasis significantly affects the quality of patient’s life due toemotional stress. Sometimes patient may feel progressive mental depression and in turn seriously affecting his/hers family surrounding. The treatment approaches towards the successful management of psoriasis deserves consideration since the incidence of the disease is increasing now a days. Treating physicians should share their clinical experiences on global platform to benefit the patients effectively. Considering this aspect the present article describes some case studies of the management of Psoriasis with the help of homeopathic medicines.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Homeopathy, Psoriasis, Dermatology, Skin Disease.</p> Hiralal H Agarwal Vilas L Jahagirdar Zeenat Fatima Faroouqi Onkar Kelkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 151 153 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3539 New regimen for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with emphasis on Sulpride as the sole maintenance therapy http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3424 <p>The efficiency and safety of Sulpirid (50 mg twice/daily) was assessed in 563 adult patients with 6 groups of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who had failed dietary therapy.&nbsp; The groups included; patients without previous treatment (n: 137), patients who had received a muscarinic antagonists (n: 65), an anticholinergic/benzodiazepine combination (n: 187), a tricyclic antidepressants (n: 62), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (n: 48) and an antiflatulent (n: 64).&nbsp; Patients were assessed for 6 weeks.&nbsp; Sulpirid was effective and safe in safe in relieving the abdominalgia, anxiety, depression and bowel function.&nbsp; The overall success of Sulpride in treatment of IBS was 84%.&nbsp; Most patients who had failed muscarinic antagonists, antiflatulent and tricyclic antidepressants had &gt; 95% improvement with Sulpride.&nbsp; The success was 88% in those who did not receive prior therapy while it was just 77% and 72% in those who had failed SSRIs and anticholinergic/benzodiazepine combination. &nbsp;In treatment-failures, a further 9.8% improvement was achieved with addition of a SSRI (Escitalopram) and an extra 3.4% with subsequent increase in Sulpride dose to 100 mg X 2 limiting failures to only 2.3%.&nbsp; Tolerance of treatment was good and side-effects developed in 11% patients.&nbsp; In conclusion: Sulpride is an effective and safe drug in IBS.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antidepressants, anxiolytics, irritable bowel syndrome, treatment, Sulpride</p> Kamel El-Reshaid Shaikha Al-Bader ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 154 157 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3424 A Study on Effect of Naturopathy in Diabetes Control without Medicine http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3540 <p>The common cause of all diseases is the accumulation of waste and poisonous matter in the body. The ancient and modern science of healthcare management described various modalities for the treatment of different diseases and naturopathy is one of them. Naturopathy is a natural system that removes toxic matter and strengthens physiological functioning of body. Naturopathy treats diseases without medication and generally not deteriorates functioning of vital organs of the body. Natural therapies such as; application of cold water compression, mud application, sun bath, lifestyle management and diet etc. cure diseases by stimulating vitality of the body. Present article explored use of naturopathy in case of diabetes, article summarized effect of naturopathy in the management of diabetes using a clinical case study.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Naturopathy, Disease, Diabetes, Sun Bath, Lifestyle&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Sonali Harish Ghongade ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 158 160 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3540 Plant Secondary Metabolites of Antiviral Properties a Rich Medicinal Source for Drug Discovery: A Mini Review http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3471 <p>Plants possess a unique defense mechanism unlike humans and animals that protects them from harmful microorganism to herbivores by secreting low molecular weight compounds called secondary metabolites. The compounds are concentrated in essential oil of the plants and its medicinal properties cure human illnesses too. Some of those plants still being used in traditional medicine by human, ever since civilized using plants as medicine. The ancient civilizations India, China and Europe only used plants as medicine. The emergence and enormous growth of allopathic medicine in the 19<sup>th</sup> century caused the downfall of the traditional medicine system. Now in the 21<sup>st</sup> century the scenario changed, the scientists trying to rediscover the ancient medicine through science to cure deadly diseases. In this review we focused on the researches that determined the antiviral properties of plant secondary metabolites for the development of drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Secondary metabolites, Antiviral properties, Alkaloids, Phenols, Viral diseases, Medicinal plants<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> king Solomon Ebenezer Rekha Manivannan Abarna Punniyamoorthy Chidambaram Tamilselvan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 161 167 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3471 Ayurveda Perspective on Balatisara; Common Causes, Symptoms and Ayurveda Management http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3531 <p><em>Balatisara</em> (Diarrhea) is a disease of children mainly involves symptoms of disturbed bowel movements. As per ayurveda <em>Atisar</em> can be classified into seven category; <em>Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja, Bhayaja</em>, <em>Tridoshaja, Shokaja</em> and <em>Raktatisara</em>. The <em>Balatisara</em> affects large number of population world widely and prevalence of diarrhea now a day’s deteriorating school performance of many children. Lack of immunity, susceptibility towards the causative pathogen, low hygienic condition, malnutrition and consumption of contaminated food items can cause<em> Balatisara.</em> Increases frequency of defecation, disturbed electrolyte balance, thirst, weakness, gas formation and abdomen cramps are the common symptoms of <em>Balatisara.</em> <em>Nidana Sevana</em> vitiates <em>Vata</em> leading to the <em>Mandagni</em> and <em>Koshta shoonata</em> increases <em>Dravata</em> in <em>Pureesha</em> in <em>Pakwashaya</em> which finally resulted <em>Atisara</em>. The therapeutic measure must requires consideration of <em>Doshas</em> condition; <em>Alpa</em>, <em>Madhya</em> or <em>Bahumatra</em> of <em>Doshas</em>. <em>Langana</em> can be done if <em>Doshas</em> are <em>Alpa,</em> <em>Langana</em> leads <em>Agnideepana</em> which resulted <em>Aamapachana </em>action. Present article described ayurveda perspective of <em>Balatisara</em> including causes, symptoms and management.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ayurveda, Balatisara, Diarrhea, Herbs. </em><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Pranali Sunil Bagwe Jayprakash Khairnar Vijay Suryavanshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 168 170 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3531 Intravaginal Drug Delivery System: Compherensive Approach to Vaginal Formulations. http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3560 <p>Intra-vaginal route of administration is a route of administration where the dosage form is applied vaginally for the convenient release of the dosage form and for better therapeutic action of the medicament, it is usually used in HIV patients. Vaginal route is been used as a traditional delivery system used for the conventional delivery of several locally acting drugs like antimicrobial agents. The various types of formulations as well as the dosage forms are available for intra-vaginal drug delivery system such as tablets gels vaginal rings etc. the disease’s such as HIV or other diseases caused into the vaginal area due to causative agents like bacteria fungi etc.&nbsp; For efficient vaginal delivery of drugs, the delivery system should reside at the site of infection for a prolonged period of time.</p> Prashant Patil Pragati Bhopale Ravindranath B Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 171 174 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3560 Medicinal Potential of Jamun (Syzygium cumini Linn): A Review http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3568 <p>Unani System of Medicine (USM) is being practised as traditional, alternative and complementary medicine in India and other countries. In this system of medicine, medicinal plants are extensively used in the treatment of various kind of diseases since time immemorial. Herbo-mineral origin drugs are the main components of Unani Pharmacopoeia. Jamun (<em>Syzygium cumini Linn</em>) is one of the medicinal plants used for therapeutic purposes in <em>Dhayāb</em><em>īṭ</em><em>us Ḥārr </em>(diabetes mellitus),&nbsp; <em>Ishāl-e- Damwī</em> (haemorrhagic diarrhoea), <em>Is’haal-i-Safrā</em>wī (bilious diarrhoea), <em>Ḍu‘f al-Ishtihā’</em>(loss of appetite), <em>Zaḥīr </em>(dysentery) and <em>Qulā </em>(oral ulcer). In recent past its fruits, seeds, leaves, stem bark and its secondary metabolites have shown medicinal properties in various experimental and clinical studies. In this review we have tried to explore its ethno-botanical uses and pharmacological actions described in classical literature and scientific publications based on experimental studies. It is found that this plant plays an important role in prevention and management of non-communicable diseases such as <em>Dhayāb</em><em>īṭ</em><em>us Ḥārr </em>(diabetes mellitus), <em>Sarṭān</em> (cancer), <em>Niqris</em> (gout), ischaemic heart disease etc. Several preclinical studies have revealed that it has <em>Muḥallil-i- Awrām</em> (anti-inflammatory), <em>Muḥāfiẓ-i-</em> <em>Qalb</em> (cardio protective), <em>Dafi‘-i-Ḥummā</em> (anti-pyretic) and <em>Muqawwī-i-Jigar</em> (hepatotonic) properties. It also possesses anti-diabetic potential activity and considered as a potent anti-diabetic plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Unani, Jamun, Syzygium, Antidiabetic, Anti-inflammatory, Hepatoprotective</p> Nadeem Ahmad Mohammad Nawab M Husain Kazmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 175 180 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3568 An Overview on Nanoparticles http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3569 <p>Nanoparticles are of great interest for a wide variety of applications in the field of information, energy, environmental and medical technologies due to their unique properties determined primarily by size, composition and structure along with their self-organized film structures. For the past few years, there has been a considerable research on the basis of Novel drug delivery system, using particulate vesicle systems as such drug carriers for small and large molecules. Nanoparticles have been modifying the therapeutic effect of drugs and minimize the side effects. Basically, Nanoparticles have been prepared by using various techniques as such Gas Condensation, Vacuum Deposition and Vaporization, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Chemical Vapor Condensation (CVC) along with evaluations of nanoparticles.</p> Rupali Yevale Nilofar Khan Suvrana Bhadane ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 181 184 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3569 A Review on Nanoemulsions: A Recent Drug Delivery Tool http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3577 <p>There is a growing interest for using of nano/sub-micron particles in the technology of pharmaceutical, cosmetic and also food. Especially, this interest has been increasing parallel with better emulsification techniques and stabilization mechanisms. There are two main groups of nanoemulsion preparation methods, namely high-energy and low-energy spontaneous emulsification methods. Preparation processes and components used are significant parameters that affect stability from few hours to years. Problems such as creaming, coalescence sedimentation and flocculation are not concern for nanoemulsions due to their small droplet size. However, the main destabilization mechanism is Ostwald ripening for them. In this paper, a comprehensive review is presented to give basic ideas about nanoemulsions, their preparation methods, and evaluations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> &nbsp;Nanoemulsion, preparation methods, evaluation</p> Vaibhav V Changediya Rupalben Jani Pradip Kakde ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 9 5 185 191 10.22270/jddt.v9i5.3577