Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Determination of microbial load, total Phenolic and flavonoids contents in polyherbal formulation “yograj guggulu vati” <p>Yograj guggulu vati (YGV), a polyherbal formulation is recommended for the management of diseases like arthritic, anodyne or analgesic, spasm, muscle relaxant, flatulence, digestive problem, cough, hyperglycaemia, fat burner and obesity. Though Yograj guggulu vati is widely used for the treatment of diseases in Ayurvedic System of Indian Medicine, but till date, it’s Phenolic and flavonoids contents and contamination studies have not been carried. In the present article, we evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoids contents and contamination of YGV. Total phenolic contents were evaluated by Folin Ciocalteu reagent. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for the determination of total flavonoid contents. Contamination study such as microbial load was also performed. Microbial load study revealed that total bacterial counts and total fungal counts were under limits. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were 190.16 mg/g and 20.87 mg/ g dry extract respectively. Microbial load studies showed that the formulation has a good quality and purity. Presence of abundance phenolic and flavonoids compound indicated that YGV can be used for different biological activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Microbial load, Yograj Guggulu Vati, total phenolic contents</p> Vimal Dutt Shivani Srivastav Swati Mittal Md Rafiul Haque ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 1 5 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3858 Glyphosate and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: No causal relationship <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Herbicides are used worldwide by both residential and agricultural users. Due to the statistical analysis of some epidemiologic studies the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the broad-spectrum herbicide Glyphosate (GS) in 2015, as potentially carcinogenic to humans especially with respect to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In this systematic review and re-analysis, the relationship between Glyphosate and NHL was re- investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A systematic review and re-analysis of studies which investigated the relationship between GS and NHL was conducted. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship, the method of the conditio per quam relationship, the method of the exclusion relationship and the mathematical formula of the causal relationship k were used to proof the hypothesis. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The studies analyzed do not provide any direct and indirect evidence that NHL is caused GS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In this re-analysis, no causal relationship was apparent between Glyphosate and NHL and its subtypes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Glyphosate, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, no causal relationship</p> Ilija Barukčić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 6 29 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3856 Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities of Crataeva adansonii DC. ssp. adansonii leaves extract on ICR mice <p><em>Crataeva adansonii</em> DC. ssp. <em>adansonii</em> is a medicinal plant belong to Capparidaceae family, used traditionally by Togolese to treat diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities of the plant leaves. The effect of hydroethanolic extract of <em>C. adansonii</em> ssp. <em>adansonii </em>leaves was assessed <em>in vivo </em>on blood glucose levels in fasting normal and glucose loaded hyperglycemic (oral glucose tolerance test) mice. The phytochemical screening has been done by coloring tests in chemistry. <em>In vitro </em>antioxidants assays had been performed by 2, 2'-azobis 2 amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH) free radical scavenging assay, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, Fe<sup>2+</sup> chelating assay and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) quantification. After 30 min glucose loading (4 g/kg), the extract 500 mg/kg was showed a significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001) decreased of the peak of blood glucose compared to the hyperglycemic control. The two doses of extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) did not act on the basic blood glucose compared to the normoglycemic control. Phytochemical screening revealed a presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and sterols. AAPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, Fe<sup>2+</sup> chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity have shown dose-dependent antioxidant capacity and reducing power of extract compared to ascorbic acid and Butylated hydroxyl Toluene used as reference drug. These finding prove that <em>C. adansonii </em>ssp. <em>adansonii </em>leaves can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications related to oxidative stress and support the use of the plant in traditional medicine in diabetes treatment.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Crataeva adansonii</em>, antihyperglycaemic, phytochemical, antioxidant.</p> Kokou Atchou Povi Lawson-Evi Kossi Metowogo Batomayena Bakoma Kwashie Eklu-Gadegbeku Kodjo AkliKokou Mensavi Gbeassor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 30 38 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3855 Investigation of Renal Protective Effect of Euphorbia antiquorum L.(Stem) in Animal Model <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Euphorbia antiquorum is a fleshy shrub belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is widely distributed in the hotter parts of India. It is used as a substitute for the Ayurvedic drug ‘Snuhee’ whose accepted botanical source is <em>Euphorbia neriifolia</em> Linn. The leaf, stem, latex and root of Snuhee are used in treatment of diseases and conditions like, diabetes, coryza, and oedema. <strong>Objective: </strong>The present study is aimed to investigate the renal protective effect of&nbsp; E. antiquorum alcoholic extracts of the stem&nbsp;&nbsp; on alloxan (150mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> All animals were treated for 21 days and sacrificed on the last day. Unwanted placebo effect in case of the control group was blocked by executing appropriate vehicle treatment and same animal handling pattern. Extract and standard drug doses given orally were suspended in 0.9% normal saline. Blood samples were drawn from retro orbital sinus using Diethyl-ether anesthesia at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. Blood samples were labeled in such a way that analysis team was kept blind about groups and nature of the study design. Body weight measurement and blood sampling were done on 1<sup>st</sup>, 7<sup>th</sup>, 14<sup>th</sup> and 21<sup>st</sup> day of the study. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> 21 days daily treatment with a test drug of ethanolic extract of stems of <em>Euphorbia antiquorum</em> significantly reduced the elevated Blood glucose level, Urinary Albumin, urine creatinine, serum creatinine in alloxan induced diabetic rats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nephropathy, Glomerulonephritis, Creatinine, Albumin, Oedema</p> Prashant Kumar Yadav S. S. Sisodia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 39 44 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3871 Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of ethanol fruit extract of Cherry Plum - Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. <p>Foods that have disease-preventing potential are designated as functional foods. Functional foods are foods that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. A large number of antioxidants, both nutritive and nonnutritive, occur in foods. The potency of antioxidants present in foods in vivo will depend not only on their levels in the foods but also on their bioavailability, that is, the extent to which the active forms of antioxidants are released from the food and absorbed through the gut. Most of phytochemicals, components of food, beverages, and herbal products are often reported in literature as “nutraceutical”, emphasizing their health promoting properties, including the prevention and treatment of pathologies like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neural disorders, and Alzheimer’s disease. Phytochemicals are virtually present in all the fruits, vegetables, pulses/legumes and grains which are commonly consumed, so it is quite easy to incorporate them in our daily diet. Current research studies were carried out for evaluating the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ripe fruits of ethanol extract of <a href=""><em>Prunus</em></a> <em>cerasifera</em><em>.</em> Antioxidant activities such as DPPH˙ radical, Superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical, ABTS<sup>●+</sup> radical cation, phosphomolybdenum reduction and Fe<sup>3+ </sup>reduction were carried out for ripe fruits of ethanol extract of <a href=""><em>Prunus</em></a> <em>cerasifera</em>. The maximum DPPH˙ radical and Superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical scavenging activities were 82.11±0.42% and 46.26±0.28% at 120 µg/mL concentration and the IC<sub>50</sub> values were 45.40 µg/mL and 129.70 µg/mL concentrations respectively. The maximum ABTS<sup>●+ </sup>radical cation scavenging activity was 88.64±0.43% at 30 µg/mL concentration and the IC<sub>50</sub> value was 10.09 µg/mL concentration respectively. The maximum Mo<sup>6+ </sup>reduction and Fe<sup>3+ </sup>reduction were 86.29±0.29% and 79.82±0.20% at 120 µg/mL concentration and the RC<sub>50 </sub>values were 20.45 µg/mL and 24.21 µg/mL concentrations respectively. The antibacterial activity of ripe fruits of ethanol extract of <a href=""><em>Prunus</em></a> <em>cerasifera</em> showed maximum zone of inhibition of 20 mm for <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> at 500 µg/mL concentration.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antioxidant, Superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical, ABTS<sup>●+</sup> radical cation, Fe<sup>3+ </sup>reduction and phenolic compounds.</p> K Saraswathi C Sivaraj P Arumugam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 45 50 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3851 Formulation and Characterization of Moxifloxacin Nanoparticles with Ion Exchange Resin <p>Moxifloxacin (MOX) is a fluoroquinolone anti-infective drug, indicated for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. The drug is soluble in water but still produces low ocular bioavailability due to biological barriers and so it requires dosing for two/three times a day. The present study was designed to formulate, optimize and characterize polymeric Nanoparticles MOX for ocular administration using Ion Exchange Resin (IER). IER-nanoparticles were prepared by media milling method, formulation/process parameters were optimized based on evaluation parameters such as color of nanosuspension, sedimentation behaviour, particle size and zeta potential. MOX-IER nanosuspensions were prepared at different stoichiometric ratio of MOX and IER and characterized by entrapment efficiency, pH, particle size and zeta potential of nanosuspension. <em>In vitro</em> release study of optimized batch MNIER3 exhibited sustained release pattern which follows Korsmeyer-Peppas model with Fickian diffusion mechanism for drug release. Based on these results optimized batch of MOX-IER nanosuspension formulated in the laboratory was found suitable for ocular delivery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Moxifloxacin; nanoparticles, nanosuspension; media milling; stoichiometric ratio; sedimentation behaviour.</p> Jigar Vyas Kapil Daxini Jitendra Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 51 61 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3853 A Comparative Study of Analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol and Acetone Extracts of Fruits Peels of Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Present study was designed to evaluate Analgesic, Antidiarrhoeal and Antimicrobial activities of methanol and acetone extracts of fruit peels of <em>Limonia acidissima</em> L. by different methods.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The analgesic activity of the samples was studied using acetic acid- induced writhing model in mice. Castor oil-induced antidiarrheal activity was observed by Thomas method and antimicrobial activity was monitored by disc diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong><em> Limonia acidissima</em> L. inhibited 60.53 % and 59.65 % writhing of methanol as well as acetone fruit peels extracts, respectively, compared to standard drug Diclofenac Na inhibited 78.07 % writhing. At higher dose (500 mg/kg) of the methanol and acetone fruit peels extracts, significant inhibition 47.13 and 44.83 % of characteristic diarrhoeal feces was observed, respectively, as well as at lower dose (250 mg/kg) of the both extracts, inhibition 34.45 and35.63 %. Mention able on average 12mm zone of inhibition was observed of both extract at 250µg/disc and 500µg/disc compare to zone of inhibition 36mm of ciprofloxacin at 50µg/disc.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> From the above results, it will be very much possible source for an isolating lead compound for curing the numerous disorders.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Limonia acidissima </em>L. Fruit peels, Diclofenac sodium, Loperamide, Ciprofloxacin.</p> Fahadul Islam A.K. Azad Md. Faysal Md. A.K. Azad Saiful Islam Md. Al Amin Nahida Sultana Farhana Yeasmen Dola Md. Mominur Rahman Md. Zamshed Alam Begh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 62 65 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3882 Preparation and assessment of ocular inserts containing sulbactum for controlled drug delivery <p>Ocuserts or Ophthalmic inserts are sterile preparations containing drug as dispersion or as solution in the polymeric support. The sulbactum is highly used as antibacterial agent in combination with other antibacterial agent. This study aims to formulate novel sulbactum ocuserts to enhance patient compliance through providing controlled drugs release from polymeric matrix. Ocuserts were prepared by solvent-casting method using different polymers HPMC, K4M, Polyvinyl alcohol,ethyl cellulose as polymer gelatine and propylene glycol and dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer in different ratios. The prepared ocusters were physic-chemichally evaluated for their weight, thickness, drug content uniformity, surface pH, swelling index (SI) and folding endurance. The viscosity of the polymeric solution used for the formulations was determined using Brookfield viscometer. In-Vitro Drug Release study and Accelerated stability studies were also performed. The prepared ocuserts show uniform weight, thickness and drug content. Their surface pH was in the physiological range and showed acceptable folding endurance. HPMC formulas had higher SI values. Results of <em>in-vitro </em>testing for one of the prepared ocuserts shows slow release of drugs up to 24 hours. One of the prepared ocuserts is promising for once-daily effective and safe drug delivery system of sulbactum for glaucoma treatment<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>Ocuserts, sulbactum, viscosity, Ophthalmic</p> Monika Dhaka Rupa Mazumdar Md Rafiul Haque ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 66 71 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3889 Epidemiological Approach and Precocious Diagnosis of Precancerous Cervical Lesion in Sidi Bel Abbes Region (North-West of Algeria) <p><strong>Object: </strong>Cervical cancer of the uterine (CCU) is the first cancer of the genital tract. In Algeria, this cancer remains a real public health problem. The diagnosis is still done often with advanced stages which makes the therapeutic results modest and the cost of the high care. <strong>Methodology: </strong>Our study aims to elucidate the reality of this type of pathology in the region of Sidi Bel Abbes, northwestern Algeria. This retrospective and descriptive study was devoted to the epidemiological and clinical analysis of cervical cancer cases over a period of 3 years. <strong>Results: </strong>This study shows that out of a total of 500 smears recorded between (2014-2016) at the Ana-pathology laboratory level in Sidi Bel Abbes, we found that 230 smears presented precancerous lesions according to a cytological study, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US: were 18%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) were 20%, while high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were 8%. The results obtained according to the distribution of the patients in relation to the various factors: the most affected age group is late 46-55 years with a total of 40%; precocious age of 1st report 18-20 years is (38.2%); gestation 4-5 pregnancies and parities 4-5 children with a rate of (38.70% and 32.6%) respectively ; the hormonal state in genital activity is estimated at 62.2%; patients on oral contraception (OC) have a rate of 48.9%. Finally, more than half of the patients (57.8%), were able to have a biopsy within three to four months of the last smear.</p> <p>In histology, the presence of a HPV (<em>Human Papilloma Virus</em>) low grade lesion does not predict the evolution of this lesion. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>HPV can be oncogenic or non-oncogenic. it is the oncogenic HPV infection that is the main risk factor for developing a high grade lesion&nbsp; and cervical cancers outside the associated cofactors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pap Smear, Precancerous lesion, Cancer, Cervix, Screening</p> Samira Meziani Khadidja Haoud Hayet Mehida Norddine Menadi Fatima Zohra Chenni Imene Bekhaled Fatima Zohra Drici Abassia Demmouche Mohammed Benali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 72 78 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3887 Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia; a common cause of drug-refractory hypertension yet amenable to medical treatment <p>Over the past 4 and 1/2 years, a total of 97 patients had hypertension yet lacked clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of renal, renovascular and endocrine disease were investigated for A/R ratio.&nbsp; High A/R was detected in 30 patients.&nbsp; Five patients had unilateral adrenal adenoma and 1 had cancer while 24 patients (24.7%) had bilateral enlargements indicating bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH).&nbsp; Our study has shown that BAH is: (a) easily diagnosed with a combination of A/R ratio and CT scan of the adrenal gland, (b) responsible for 24.7% of hypertension cases, (c) associated with moderate to severe hypertension that may require 2-4 antihypertensives, (d) associated with hypokalemia in only in 54% of the cases, (e) not controlled with a single daily dose of Spironolactone (S) and ½ the cases require 50 mg/day.&nbsp;&nbsp; Moreover, it has shown that S treatment was not associated with significant hyperkalemia yet gynecomastia and erectile dysfunction were common side effects.&nbsp; Interestingly; and despite normalization of A/R ratio, most patients continue to require antihypertensive drugs though the number and dosage were less.&nbsp; The latter phenomenon was more evident in those with higher initial A/R ratio and longer duration of hypertension.&nbsp; Nephroangiosclerosis is the most plausible explanation for it.&nbsp; In conclusion; BAH is not a rare disease and should be considered in cases of refractory hypertension.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Aldosterone, Aldosterone/Renin ratio, hypertension, Spironolactone.</p> El-Reshaid Kamel Shaikha Al-Bader ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 79 82 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3862 Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoids Extracted from Pistacia lentiscus L., Leaves <h3><strong>Increasingly, the flavonoids becoming the subject of biomedical researches, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing important biological activities. This assess investigates the antimicrobial fight and the antioxidant strengths of flavonoids extracted from <em>Pistacia lentiscus L</em>. leaves.&nbsp; The extract was first analyzed for its phenolic content, then the flavonoids were tested for their antimicrobial capacities by the method of diffusion against fourteen bacteria, two fungi and one yeast. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of flavonoids were determined using the dilution method on solid medium, however, the antioxidant activity was evaluated through the ability of the extract to scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and the reducing power essay. The results indicate that flavonoids extract contain other phenolics groups. On the other side, the Antibacterial tests exhibited different activities depending on the strains. Unlike, the MIC and the MBC showed that the flavonoids extract showed a best activity against <em>Candida albicans</em> and <em>Vibrio cholerae</em>. Concerning antioxidant activity, the results indicate a moderate capacity of the flavonoid extract. These preliminary results may justify the use of this plant in the treatment of some diseases and may be exploited for therapeutic purposes.</strong></h3> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, <em>Pistacia lentiscus</em>, flavonoids, MIC, MBC.</p> Sabrina Bakli Harzallah Daoud Zerroug Amina Sadrati Nouari Bouguerra Asma Gaamoune Soufiane Naili Oumaima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 83 89 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3895 Study of In-vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica, and Ocimum sanctum in different organic solvents and Cow urine <p><strong>Background:</strong> Neem (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>), Tulsi (<em>Ocimum sanctum</em>) and Cow urine (<em>Bos indicus</em>) has been widely used as a therapeutic potential or additive agent in different ethnomedicinal practices as well as modern science also proved its therapeutic potential to treat various diseases and balance the body conditions.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Alone study on Neem, Tulsi and Cow urine (CU) has been widely performed but this study aims to evaluate the individual as well as synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Neem, and Tulsi’s leaves extract in different organic solvents and Cow urine.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Antioxidant activity was carried out by using 2,2-Diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the antibacterial activity was tested by the agar disc diffusion method against gram-positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>) &nbsp;and gram-negative (<em>Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris</em> and<em> Klebsiella species</em>) bacteria<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The antioxidant and antibacterial activity is concentration-dependent. The neem extract in chloroform shows the highest ZOI against <em>S. aureus</em> (14±2). Similarly, the neem extract in cow urine (8±0.86) and tulsi extract in methanol (8±1.04) shows the highest ZOI against <em>E. coli. </em>Against <em>K. species</em> cow urine is most effective (9±0.29) followed by neem extract in chloroform and cow urine (8±0.77). In <em>P. vulgaris </em>almost all sample shows ZOI around 7 mm. In synergistic antibacterial study tulsi and neem extract in cow urine shows the highest ZOI against <em>E. coli</em> (12±1.75) and <em>P. vulgaris</em> (10±1.44). The tulsi and neem extract in hexane is not effective against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli </em>but effective in <em>P. vulgaris</em> and <em>K. species</em> (ZOI 7 mm). Tulsi and neem extract in chloroform, methanol, and cow urine show similar ZOI (9 mm). In DPPH free radical scavenging activity the methanolic extract of tulsi shows the highest inhibition of free radicle (96.35±0.001), followed by methanolic extract of neem (84.85±0.042). The fresh cow urine inhibits (25.19±0.037) followed by neem extract in chloroform (24.53±0.003), neem extract in cow urine (21.8±0.012), tulsi extract in chloroform (20.86±0.047), tulsi extract in hexane (19.5±0.031), tulsi extract in cow urine (18.33±0.023) and the least inhibition by neem extract in hexane (6.74±0.042).</p> Nisha Adhikari Anita Rana Sangita Oli Srijana Neupane Ravin Bhandari Dirgha Raj Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 90 95 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3908 Phytochemical screening, Antimycobacterial activity of three medicinal Cameroonians plants and Acute toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Vitellaria paradoxa <p>Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> (<em>M. tuberculosis</em>) complex, resposible&nbsp; for health problems in developing countries. In Africa, various medicinal plants are traditionally used to treat&nbsp; TB.&nbsp; The aim of this study is to carry out the phytochemical screening, to evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of the crude extracts of three medicinal plants present in Cameroon (<em>Zingiber officinale</em>, <em>Vitellaria paradoxa</em> and <em>Alstonia boonei)</em> and the acute toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of <em>Vitellaria paradoxa</em>. The phytochemical screening was obtained by hydroethanolic extraction&nbsp; and decoction. Inhibitory parameters of antimycobacterial activities were determined using the microplate alamar blue assay against <em>M. tuberculosis</em> <em>H<sub>37</sub>Rv</em> (ATCC 27294) and on one <em>M. tuberculosis</em> clinical strain. The crude extract with the best antimycobacterial activity was used for the acute toxicity assessment according to the OECD protocol. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of triterpenes and steroids in all the extracts, whereas&nbsp; phenols were only present in the decoction of <em>Alstonia boonei</em>. All extracts tested showed antimycobacterial activities. The hydroethanolic extract of <em>V. paradoxa</em>&nbsp; presented the best antimycobacterial activity with MICs of 78.13 and 625 μg/mL and MBCs of 78.13 and 2500 μg/mL respectively on <em>M. tuberculosis H<sub>37</sub>Rv</em> and on <em>M. tuberculosis</em> clinical strain. The results of the acute toxicity evaluation of <em>V. paradoxa</em>&nbsp; showed a lethal dose 50&nbsp; greater than 5000 mg/kg compared to control.<strong> T</strong>he antimycobacterial activity of all the plant extracts used in this study justifies the traditional use of these medicinal plants on the treatment of&nbsp; TB.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Zingiber officinale</em>, <em>Vitellaria paradoxa</em>, <em>Alstonia</em> <em>boonei</em>, Phytochemical screening, Antimycobacterial activity, Acute toxicity.</p> Jean Paul Assam Assam Marc Flaubert Yumsu Tcham Ndedi Esther Del Florence Moni Diboue Patrick Hervé Betote Tchinda Cedric Fossi Beng Veronique Penlap ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 96 104 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3848 Bradford assay as a high-throughput bioanalytical screening method for conforming pathophysiological state of the animal <p>Proteins are the essential components of the tissues that play a key role in the body. Its expression in the cell or tissue under a specified set of conditions and at a particular time regulates the different body conditions either as a normal body function or as a disease state. Protein is an important building block of muscles, skin, cartilage, bones and blood. Bradford assay is a reliable advanced and cost-effective protein estimation test for determining the exact concentration of protein in different tissues of the animal. In this study, we have taken a rat suffering from protein deficiency disorder and total protein concentration in the heart, brain, liver, blood and kidney was determined. It was found that the total protein concentration in different tissues of rat i.e., heart, brain, liver, plasma and kidney was found to be 8.39 ± 0.75, 10.46 ± 0.76, 6.74 ± 0.39, 8.12 ± 0.32 mg/g of tissue and 61.27 ± 0.95 mg/mL of plasma respectively (mean ± SEM). As compared to earlier published reports the total protein concentration in different tissues like hear, brain, liver and kidney found much lower to standard value as reported by Beyer, the reason behind obtaining this kind of results may be due to the presence of insufficient amount of the protein content in different tissue of animal as suffering from protein degeneration disorder. The rat was unable to digest and store the protein or catabolism was much faster than</p> <p>anabolism.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anabolism, Bradford assay, Catabolism, Protein estimation.</p> Abhishesh Kumar Mehata Deepa Dehari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 105 110 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3921 A Comprehensive Review on Plant derived Natural products for Diabetes and its complication as nephropathya <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the portable Hemoglobinometer “HbChek” by comparing its performance against automated Three-part hematology analyzer, Medonic M20. Total 731 venous blood samples were subjected through their total hemoglobin evaluation. Each sample was run only once on reference device and HbChek. The two set of values were comparatively analyzed. The repeatability of the performance of HbChek was also evaluated against Medonic M20 values. The scatter plot of HbChek values and Medonic M20 values showed linear distribution with regression correlations r=0.99. The intraclass correlation (ICC) between the two set of values was found to be 0.9952 with 95% confidence intervals (CI) ranging between 0.9945 and 0.9959. The mean difference in Bland–Altman plots of HbChek values against the Medonic M20 values was found to be -0.08 g/dL, with limits of agreement between 0.60 g/dL and -0.75 g/dL. Coefficient of Variation was found to be 2.8% (SD/Mean=0.35/12.4). Sensitivity &amp; Specificity was found at 93.2 % &amp; 98.6% respectively. These results suggest a strong positive correlation with laboratory machines differences less than 0.8 g/dL. In addition, high sensitivity &amp;high specificity value with easiness of use can make HbChek appropriate technology for public health systems like Sub-Centers &amp; PHCs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hemoglobinometer, Coefficient of Variation, Sensitivity &amp; Specificity</p> Wahid Ali Wamique Khan Wamique Khan Neha Srivastava Zoya Shakir Paurabhi Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 111 113 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3879 In vivo antiplasmodial potential of Carrageenan and Prosopis africana buccal films of artemether on malariogenic mice <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To deliver bioadhesive buccal films of artemether (ART) with ability to adhere, hydrate and release drug across the buccal membrane. <strong>Methods: </strong>Buccal films prepared by film casting using carrageenan (CAR) and<em> Prosopis africana</em> (PRO) were characterized by size, zeta potential, texture, water content, morphology, thermal and interaction studies, <em>in vitro </em>and <em>in vivo </em>antiplasmodial activity in mice. <strong>Result</strong>s: Films were stable with sizes (2442 and 835 nm), water content (21 and 15 %), bioadhesivity (24 and 9.4 %) and film thickness (0.18 and 0.28 mm) for CARART and PROART respectively. Enthalpy of CARART, PROART and ART were 76, 22 and 88 J/g where as parasitaemia reduction of 67 and 76 % were observed for CARART and PROART respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Though CARART had better water content and bioadhesivity necessary for film hydration at buccal membrane, PROART eventually had superior buccal performance perhaps due to its film thickness and amorphous nanoparticle subdivision.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Artemether; Carrageenan; <em>Prosopis africana</em>; Sublingual buccal films; Malaria</p> Petra Nnamani Ogechukwu Nnadi Emmanuel Ibezim Ebere Ayogu Joy Reginald-Opara Simon Onoja Amelia Odo Agatha Ugwu Chidi Ogbonna Anthony Attama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 114 125 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3790 A Comprehensive Review on Plant derived Natural products for Diabetes and its complication as nephropathyExtraction and Quantitative Estimation of Chrysophanol From Cassia tora Meal Powder by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography <p>An isocratic reverse phase HPLC method were described to determined chrysophanol contain in <em>cassia tora</em> meal powder obtained during the split manufacturing process of cassia tora seed husk and germs which are used as a valuable cattle feed and poultry feed as they are quite rich in protein. The method involves methanol: water (90:10) with 0.05% Ortho-Phosphoric acid as solvent system and chromatogram detection was done on 254 nm using photodiode array detector. Chrysophanol were extracted using methanol, 70% methanol, acid hydrolysis and Oxidative hydrolysis by different concentration of the Hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride respectively. An average chrysophanol content was observed in <em>cassia tora</em> meal powder was 0.066 percent. In an efforts to develop an improved method for the determination of content of chrysophanol which is important marker compound in <em>cassia tora</em> meal and also improve method of an extraction methods. The solvents for extraction of chrysophanol from <em>cassia tora </em>were examined in order to increase the chrysophanol contents in <em>cassia tora</em> meal powder. It was found that 70% methanol, 20% HCL (v/v) and 3% FeCl<sub>3</sub> (v/v) was capable of increasing the chrysophanol contain up to 0.099 percent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> HPLC, Chrysophanol, Extraction, Cassia tora meal powder</p> Subodh A Gangurde Kirti S Laddha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 126 129 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3880 Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities development of methanol extract of Cyclamen africanum B. et R., growth in Jijel - Algeria <p>The genus Cyclamen L. (Primulaceae) is represented by 20 species, where inter alia <em>Cyclamen africanum</em> B. et R, is the only endemic species presented in Algeria. The study of their biological potentialities was evaluated through antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and the reducing power essay, the antimicrobial activity was tested with three bacterial strains and one yeast (<em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>ATCC25923, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> ATCC700603, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> ATCC6633 and <em>Candida albicans</em> ATCC1024) and anti-inflammatory activity with the Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method. The results demonstrate a perfect antioxidant activity and an excellent anti- inflammatory power at very small concentrations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Cyclamen; </em>crude extract; reducing power; antimicrobial; HRBC.</p> Gaamoune Sofiane Nouioua Wafa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 130 134 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3883 In-vitro Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities valorisation of tannin crude extract of Helianthemum helianthemoïdes (Desf.) Grosser <p>Plants have always been used by humans to relieve and cure many diseases unfortunately the majority of them still unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of tannin crude extract of<em> Helianthemum</em> <em>helianthemoïdes </em>(Desf.) Grosser. The antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH radical scavenging method and the reducing power essay; however, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested with the Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method. The obtained results indicated high antioxidant potential and a perfect anti-inflammatory agent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Helianthemum</em> <em>helianthemoïdes; </em>&nbsp;DPPH; reducing power; HRBC</p> Nouioua Wafa Gaamoune Sofiane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 135 139 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3884 The Essential oil of Eucalyptus alba L. Growing on the Salt Zone of Fatick (Senegal) as a Source of 1,8Cineole and Their Antibacterial Activity <p>Members of the genus <em>Eucalyptus</em> are potential sources of number of commercial essential oils and aromachemicals. In present study, the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the leaves of <em>Eucalyptus alba</em> were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Essential oil yields ranged from 2.41 to 4.35%. In total 18 constituents were identified, accounting for 99.0 to 99.7% of the total compositions. 1,8-cineole was present in all samples as the major component (76.5-88.1%). In addition to this compound, others that were found including limonene (3.8–8.6%), <em>α</em>-terpineol (1.4–2.8%), globulol (1.3–6.3%) and <em>α</em>-pinene (1.5–1.8%). The essential oil showed a strong antibacterial activity against <em>S. aureus</em> ATCC 29213 which is translated by an MIC of 1.25 mg/mL and good activity against <em>E.</em><em> coli</em> ATCC 25922 (6.25 mg/mL) and <em>E. faecalis</em> ATCC 29212 (6.25 mg/mL). To our knowledge, our study is the first report of <em>E. alba</em> essential oils characterized by a high 1,8-cineole content (&gt;76.5%). They may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Eucalyptus alba, </em>essential oils, antibacterial activity, 1,8-cineole and GC-SM</p> Yoro Tine Alioune Diallo Abdoulaye Diop Jean Costa Cheikh Saad Bouh Boye Alassane Wélé Julien Paolini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 140 143 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3918 A Study on Appropriateness of Antibacterial Use in Acute Wards of a Teaching Hospital <p><strong>Objective: </strong>A study to analyse the appropriateness of use of antibacterials in acute wards of a tertiary care hospital. <strong>Design</strong>: A pharmacoepidemiological research study. <strong>Intervention</strong>: Non-interventional descriptive study. <strong>Main Outcome Measure</strong>: The antibacterial prescriptions were analyzed for their adherence to or deviation from the standard national treatment guidelines. <strong>Results</strong>: There were a total of 207 patients comprising of 35 in acute medical ward, 65 in ICU, 53 in acute surgical ward and 54 in family ward, who were prescribed antibacterials. These consisted of a total of 383 prescription counts for appropriateness of AMA use. One third of the antibacterial prescriptions of inpatients surveyed were for prophylactic use followed by the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. The highest prescription counts were seen with carbapenems followed by nitroimidazoles, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and penicillins. 99% of the prescriptions were appropriate for the dose used and 49.6% of the prescriptions were inappropriate for duration of use. 74.5% of the surgical prophylaxis prescriptions were used for more than 24 hours. Ceftriaxone and cefotaxime were used instead of the recommended cefazolin, for prophylaxis. High percentage of deviation was observed with prescriptions of cefotaxime and metronidazole for empirical use. No definitive use of antimicrobials for infections was observed in the ICU. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>A high percentage of appropriateness was observed for dose of antibiotic used. The main targets identified for improvement are duration of antimicrobial use, choice of drug for surgical prophylaxis and the definitive use of antimicrobial agents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: adherence to treatment guidelines, antibiotic audit, antimicrobials.</p> Sanjay Jaiswal Sharan Shyam Vikas Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 144 148 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3927 The Phytochemical and Comparative Anticancer Study of Methanolic and Chloroform Extracts of Psidium guajava L. Leaves of Pakistani Origin <p>The chief focus of our study is to evaluate the phytochemical and anti-cancer activity of methanol (PGM) and chloroform extracts (PGC) of the leaves of <em>Psidium guajava</em> (guava) collected from local area of district Sialkot, Pakistan. Shade dried milled leaves was subjected to extraction (maceration) with methanol and chloroform. Quantitative and qualitative screenings by GC-MS and phytochemical techniques were performed. Then different secondary metabolites and phytochemical compounds were identified which are typically associated with the existence of therapeutic characteristics. <em>Psidium guajava</em> has been extensively used as herbal remedies like, anti-diarrheal, antihypertensive, antibacterial, antifungal as well as to control obesity, ulcer, diabetes. In this study, both extracts of <em>P. guajava</em> were evaluated for their anticancer activities against HeLa cell-lines (cancerous cells). The healthiest anticancer response in the form of cell-line suppression was perceived with 200µg/mL of both extracts, PGM showed 81% and PGC exhibited 91% while the standard drug doxorubicin presented around 76% inhibition. The comparative better result was seen with chloroform extract than methanolic abstract. In conclusion, the chloroform and methanol extracts of our nominated plant from Pakistan origin has a good source of phytochemicals that revealed an outstanding anti-cancer potential.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Psidium guajava</em>, anticancer, phytochemicals, methanol extracts, secondary metabolites.</p> Muhammad Abbas Muhammad Tayyab Ansari Saeed ul Hassan Muhammad Nadeem Alvi Musharraf Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 149 153 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3922 Optimization of the Yield Extraction of Essential Thyme Oil through Response Surface Method (RSM) <p>The objective of this study is the optimization of the extraction yield of essential <em>Thyme capitatus</em> oil using hydrodistillation Clevenger in order to industrialize the scale and increase the extrapolation possibility. The optimal conditions are determined using central composite designs (CCD). Nine runs were performed by varying the extraction time and the plant material form (i.e. ground and unground). The ratio of the mass/volume was considered constant during the experiments.&nbsp; The optimum yield was obtained for unground form with 1.6078% during one hour of extraction. The results of the extracted oil showed that the relative density values and the refractive index comply with international standards</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> hydrodistillation Clevenger, essential oil, <em>Thymus capitatus</em>, optimization, experimental design.</p> Fadila Ayati Saida Touzoirt Lila Aomari Chabha Sehaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 154 158 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3886 Dissolution Method Development and Validation for Estimation of Noscapine Tablets <p>A dissolution method was developed and UV spectrophotometry was developed for the evaluation of the dissolution of tablets containing 15 mg Noscapine .The dissolution medium 0.1 N HCl was found suitable to ensure sink conditions. USP Apparatus 2, 900 mL dissolution medium 45 minutes and 100 RPM were fixed. Dissolution profiles were generated at 10, 15, 20,&nbsp;&nbsp; 30; 45 min. Dissolution samples were analyzed with UV spectrophotometer at 213 nm. The UV method for determination of tablet was developed and validated. The method presented linearity (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.999) in the concentration range of 1–9 μg/mL. The recoveries were good, ranging from 97.18% to 101.45%. The intraday and Interday precision results were 0.54% and 0.78% RSD, respectively. The developed dissolution test is adequate for its purpose and can be applied for the quality control of tablets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Dissolution test; Noscapine; Tablets; UV Spectrophotometry method</p> Jigar Vyas Jaydip Solanaki Kapil Daxini Puja Vyas Neha Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 159 164 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3891 Investigation of Drug Distribution Process and Pharmacy Practices on Model Pharmacy in Dhaka City, Bangladesh <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> In Bangladesh, Drug distribution process is very important cause of our increasing economic and development. In the recent days Model pharmacy has become an important theme of study for the student in pharmacy. In Bangladesh the introduction of the model pharmacy practice likes other skilled and semi-skilled health professionals will certainly improve primary health care system. The aim of the study was to develop a strategy to improve the overall services of model pharmacy in Bangladesh.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 20 model pharmacies were the study subject. The study cover the model pharmacy located in Dhaka city, where each pharmacy was accounted through a questioner on random basis. The form includes their facilities, management system, drug distribution process and counseling system.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Study showed that, out of 20 Pharmacists, 95% of them used Software tools for their drug dispensing system. There was a helpline system for individual, online order within a short time of delivery system, discount system and membership card. The most important significant factors are counseling by “A grade” pharmacists, patient database system, affordable price and quality of medicine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> If we improve those model pharmacies and if the aim is successful, then it will be spread across Bangladesh and model pharmacy will be established gradually with digitalization.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>Model pharmacy, Bangladesh, Dhaka city, Pharmacist, Drug distribution process</p> Md. Mominur Rahman Shafana Sherin Ahasanul Mahabub Jubayer Fahadul Islam Nusrat Jahan Md. Saidur Rahaman Moriam Akter Sumi Khandaker Sanjida Akter , Mukhles Firoza Rahman Md Farid Hossain Md. Faysal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 165 173 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3890 Nigella sativa seed extract protects against cadmium-induced cardiotoxicity in rats <p><strong>Objective:</strong> &nbsp;The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of methanolic extract of <em>Nigella sativa</em> (MENS) (Black seed) against cardiotoxicity of cadmium in albino rats.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty five (25) male albino rats, weighing (150-170g), were randomly grouped into five groups: A-E. Group B (Negative Control) received intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl<sub>2</sub>, 5mg/kg) only, group C received CdCl<sub>2</sub> and low dose MENS (300mg/kg, oral), group D received CdCl<sub>2</sub> and high dose MENS (600mg/kg, oral), group E (Positive control) received CdCl<sub>2</sub> and Vitamin C (200mg/kg, oral), for 7 days. No treatment was administered to group A (Normal control). Cardiac injury was assessed by measuring serum levels of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Creatine kinase (CK-MB) using standard methods. The heart was harvested for histopathological examination.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> CdCl<sub>2 </sub>induced significant cardiotoxicity with marked elevation in the levels of biochemical markers of cardiac functions (p&lt;0.05 or p&lt;0.01); these were however attenuated by MENS. Histopathological examination of the heart sections supported the biochemical findings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Nigella sativa</em> seed extract is potentially cardioprotective against harmful chemical toxins such as cadmium.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cadmium, CdCl<sub>2</sub>, <em>Nigella sativa</em>, Medicinal food, cardiotoxicity</p> Ikenna Kingsley Uchendu Ebuka Bitrus Nnedu Ifeoma Blessing Ekeigwe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 174 177 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3868 Antidyslipidaemic and cardioprotective effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in rat fed a high cholesterol diet <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study is to evaluate the antidyslipidaemic and cardioprotective effects of aqueous extract of <em>Curcuma longa</em> (AECL) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty (20) rats were randomly grouped into four groups: A-D of five animals per group. Groups A-C received HCD (2000mg/kg, oral) and carbimazole (60mg/kg, oral) daily for eight weeks. Group A served as negative control. Group B (positive control) was treated with atorvastatin (20mg/kg), while group C served as treatment group and received AECL (400mg/kg) daily for eight weeks. Group D served as normal control and received no treatment. After the administration, biochemical markers of Lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) were assayed using standard methods. The hearts of the rats were harvested for histopathological studies.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> AECL significantly induced hypolipidaemia and stabilized lipid biochemical markers (p&lt;0.05 or p&lt;0.01); and protected the cardiac muscle fibres from injuries.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Tumeric (<em>Curcuma longa</em>) has antidyslipidaemic and cardioprotective effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>antidyslipidaemia, cardioprotection, <em>Curcuma longa</em>, ethnopharmacology, hypercholesterolaemia, Medicinal foods, cardiomyopathy</p> Ikenna Kingsley Uchendu Ifeoma Blessing Ekeigwe Ebuka Bitrus Nnedu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 178 181 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3869 Malocclusion and Hair Loss: An Intimate Relationship <p>In the dental industry, it seem no one has entertained the thought that if a dislocated mandible, in a Class II Skeletal relation could occlude or block the blood flow in in the STA.*&nbsp; Therefore stopping or impeding blood flow to the vertex of the head and therefor causing balding.&nbsp; Taking into consideration that in a healthy Class I Skeletal relation the clearance between the base of the skull and the eminence of the condyle is only 3.5mm.<sup>Pic 1&nbsp; </sup>Orthodontic experience tells us that mandibles 3.5mm retrognathic and more are very common. The intent of this paper is to expose the facts and evidence that show the Class II Skeletal mandible is the cause of balding by blocking blood flow through the S.T.A.<sup>&nbsp; </sup>Balding of vertex can be avoided.&nbsp; A large array of research has been, and continues to be conducted to determine the causative agent for hair loss. Traditionally such investigation has focused on a number of varying topics, including but not limited to chromosome composition, genotype, and subsequent phenotype expression. However, little or no investigation has been conducted to deduce what effect the skeletal relationship has upon the initial development of hair loss. Through a series of observational case studies, it is evident that there is a relationship between malocclusion and hair loss. Specifically, through analysis of dental records, cephalometric radiographs, and visual observation of patients, there appears to be a correlation between Class II Skeletal malocclusion and subsequent hair loss. Further investigation yields that vascular anatomical differences between different skeletal schemes is associated with the development of hair loss.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Craniofacial Anomalies, Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics, Hair Loss, Baldness</p> Brian CDT Dye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 182 184 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3875 Legalize cannabis in Nepal to improve Health and Economy <p>NA</p> Dirgha Raj Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 185 186 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3872 Physostigmine: A Plant Alkaloid Isolated from Physostigma venenosum: A Review on Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities <p>Medicinal plants have been documented as an important source for discovering new pharmaceutical molecules that have been used to treat serious diseases. Strikingly, previous reports stated that natural products and their derived compounds exhibit lesser side effects and improved efficacy than other synthetic counterparts. Physostigmine, a parasympathomimetic plant alkaloid isolated from the West African perennial shrub <em>Physostigma venenosum</em>, it shows a narrow therapeutic index and a short life span, despite its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). It is a widely known reversible butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and has been documented to treat various ailments such as Alzheimer’s disease. Pharmacologically, physostigmine was first reported as an antidote for atropine scopolamine and belladonna alkaloids toxicity. Recently, it has been documented as a therapy for treating several ailments including glaucoma, myasthenia gravis and the intoxication caused by tricyclic antidepressant overdoses, anti-histamines, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines. Physostigmine has been reported to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and showed short half-life, as, after the oral administration of 2 mg of physostigmine salicylate, the peak plasma concentration reached to 30 minutes. This review examines the biological activities, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of physostigmine extracted from <em>P. venenosum.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Physostigma venenosum</em>, Physostigmine, pharmacological activities, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor.</p> Gaber El-Saber Batiha Luay M. Alkazmi Eman H. Nadwa Eman K. Rashwan Amany Magdy Beshbishy Hazem Shaheen Lamiaa Wasef ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 187 190 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3866 Polymeric micelle as a nanocarrier for delivery of therapeutic agents: A comprehensive review <p>For selective and effective drug delivery of therapeutic agent nanocarriers are the most effective agents. Micelles are an aggregate of surfactant molecules that dispersed in a liquid colloid. Micelles have a variety of shapes such as spheres, rods, vesicles, tubules, and lamellae. The shape and size of a micelle are a function of the molecular geometry of its surfactant molecules and solution conditions such as surfactant concentration,&nbsp;temperature,&nbsp;pH, and&nbsp;ionic strength. Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) is the most commonly used hydrophilic segment of micelles for drug delivery. Besides PEG, other polymers including poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM) have also been used as hydrophilic portion of micelles. In this review we all discus about the polymeric micelles (PMs) as a nanocarriers for delivery of therapeutic agents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Polymeric Micelles, Colloids, Nanocarriers, Drug Delivery, Poly Ethylene Glycol(PEG)</p> Roshani D. Agrawal Amol A. Tatode Nilesh R. Rarokar Milind J. Umekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 191 195 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3850 Therapeutic Considerations for Docetaxel and Paclitaxel in Metastatic Breast Cancer <p>Breast cancer is the main source of death among women. Currently, 77% of women diagnosed with breast cancer are age 50 and older; however, it is projected that approximately 66% of the new cases diagnosed will occur in women younger than 65. Several clinical trials have assessed the wellbeing and adequacy of taxanes along with their tolerability in patients with metastatic cancer (MBC) The overview of these Paclitaxel and Docetaxel, the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, dose and administration, adverse effects, clinical potency, and sufferable profiles combination therapies, the pathological complete response of these taxanes are included. The different novel formulations of taxanes are formulated from nanoparticles, polyglutamate, liposomes to improve the wellbeing and adequacy taxanes to reduce their toxicities. Single-agent research located with docetaxel and paclitaxel in metastatic breast most cancers show clinically huge antitumor motion even in the advanced stage, heavily pretreated, safe, as properly as in refractory diseases. This action is likewise clear with taxane-based combination regimens. Serious hematologic and nonhematologic toxicities are incompatible, with different toxicities noted dependent on the portion and weekly regimen selected.&nbsp; Weekly docetaxel and paclitaxel regimens speak to important helpful treatment options for women suffering from metastatic breast cancer and have entered assessment as a major aspect of adjuvant treatment for this disease Toxicity associated with taxanes chemotherapy are based totally on the dose schedules and weekly regimen selected and the most frequent toxicities related with these marketers include myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, neutropenia, etc Docetaxel retains in tumor cells for longer duration when compared to paclitaxel because of its slow efflux and large amounts of uptake into the cell which explains its more benefits when compared to paclitaxel. Clinical studies conducted so far suggested a more benefit to risk ratio for docetaxel when compared to paclitaxel. This article reviews mainly different actions exhibited by taxanes in the therapy of metastatic breast cancer and others on stages of cancer along with the toxicities associated with these agents.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Doranala Harshini Sreenivas Pasula Vesangi Keerthi Vaishnavi Shiva Sai Tekula M. Rajendar A. Srinivas Rao A.V. Kishore Babu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 196 204 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3852 Medical Perspective on Ama as per Ayurveda and Modern Consideration: A Review <p>The Ayurveda mainly focuses to maintaining health status by preventing and treating diseases. The prevention and treatment of diseases only possible when physician aware about biochemical events and pathogenesis of disease. The knowledge about causative factors of disease helps to prevent disease prevalence and <em>Ama</em> is one such pathological factor that causes many diseases like; <em>Grahani Roga</em>, allergy and <em>Amavata, </em>etc. The ancient philosopher of Ayurveda described concept of<em> Ama</em> as biological entity responsible for many pathological events inside the body. <em>Ama</em> is considered as toxins produced due to the improper functioning of <em>Agni</em> therefore <em>Ama</em> can be considered as unripe or un-metabolized food material. <em>Ama</em> vitiates <em>Doshas</em> and disturbs <em>Dhatu-samya,</em> after combining with <em>Dosha</em> and mala <em>Ama</em> initiate pathogenesis of diseases. Present article summarizes Ayurveda and modern perspective related to <em>Ama</em> and its role in disease pathogenesis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Ayurveda, Ama, Toxins, Amavata,</em> <em>Auto-immune.</em></p> Parag Vasudev Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 205 207 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3861 Role of Dietotherapy in Lifestyle disorders: An overview <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of the present study to evaluate the role of dietotherapy in lifestyle disorders<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Background</strong>: The incidence of lifestyle disorders like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity associated with cardiovascular diseases is high on the rise. Cardiovascular disorders continue to be the major cause of mortality, representing about 30% of all death worlds wide. In the Unani System of Medicine (USM) of lifestyle, the disorder is the diseases that arise from the imbalance in <em>asbabe- sitta-zarooriya</em> over a long period.</p> <p>The management of the diseases in USM is largely based on the holistic approach. Four modes of treatment are employed, such as regimental therapy, dietotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. The dietotherapy is one of the most important non-medical therapy in which treatment is done through&nbsp; modulation in dietary habit which is necessary for the prevention and control of diseases. The principle aim of dietotherapy is to maintain nutritional needs according to the demand of the body and avoid drugs as it is not considered to be part of the body and produce adverse reactions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The rationale for dietotherapy is that lifestyle disorder brought about by a faulty diet can be reversed or reduced by changes to this diet. Dietotherapy involves recommending a specific diet which is the simplest and most natural course of treatment by USM.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Lifestyle disorders, dietotherapy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, unani system of medicine (USM)</p> Amreen Zehra Abdul Mannan Mursaleen Naseer Maryam Zafar Yasra Farooqui ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 208 210 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3909 Role of Riyazat in prevention and control of lifestyle diseases: A review <p><strong>Background:</strong> Riyazat (exercise) is a planned, structured and repetitive bodily movement that is done to improve or maintain physical fitness and overall health. It plays an important role not only in maintaining good health but also in preventing and curing certain ailments as well. Lifestyle diseases are ailments that are primarily based on the day to day habits of people. Lack of exercise and habits that detract people from the activity and push them towards a sedentary routine, these are the major causes which serve as an important factor in the rising prevalence of lifestyle diseases. Some of the emerging lifestyle diseases are obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, joint diseases and psychological disorders. Mortality and morbidity rates have also increased with increasing levels of these diseases. Frequent and consistent exercise helps in the prevention of these diseases. It helps in maintaining or losing weight, improves metabolic function and mental health by reducing stress. Many ancient Unani physicians like <em>Hippocrates, Galen, Razi </em>and <em>Avicenna </em>have discussed the beneficial effects of <em>riyazat</em> in their treatise. <strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; It is used as a regimental therapy that acts by inhibiting agglomeration of morbid material in the body and helps in revocation of waste products through natural routes, thus reducing risks for the development of various diseases. So there is an indispensable need to procure exercise regularly to forestall lifestyle diseases for the betterment of life.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Riyazat, metabolic, ancient, regimental, morbid</p> Yasra Farooqui Mohd Yunus Siddiqui Amreen Zehra Maryam Zafar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 211 214 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3929 General Health Benefits of Pranayama W.S.R. to Effects on Respiratory System: An Ayurveda Review <p><em>Pranayama</em> is traditional techniques practicing from ancient time of Indian civilization; it establishes balances of body, mind and spiritual health. <em>Pranayama</em> used for various purposes such as; maintaining health status &amp; beauty, delaying age and as therapeutic measure against many pathological conditions. <em>Pranayama</em> involves three stages of respiratory practice; <em>Puraka</em> (inhalation), <em>Kumbhaka</em> (retention) and <em>Rechaka</em> (exhalation). These stages when practices with respiratory control then offer several health benefits.<em> Pranayama</em> improves circulatory process of body, boost respiratory system and helps in pathological conditions like; asthma and rhinitis. Present article summarizes role of <em>Pranayama</em> on respiratory system and related diseases.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Pranayama, Respiratory System</em>,<em> Puraka</em>, <em>Kumbhaka</em> and <em>Rechaka</em>.</p> Yogeshwar Ashok Tikle ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 215 217 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3894 Physiological Perspectives of Ashti Dhatu and Role of Basti Chikitsa towards the Health Restoration of Ashti Dhatu <p><em>Asthi</em> is one of the important <em>Dhatu</em> amongst the many other <em>Dhatus</em> of body which mainly involve in <em>Sharira dharana</em> function, it provide shape and physical built up of body and protect internal organs from external shock. The equilibrium of <em>Asthi</em> <em>dhatus </em>helps to restore normal health status while disturbed functioning of <em>Asthi</em> <em>dhatus </em>leads pathological states. The disturbance in <em>Asthi</em> <em>dhatus </em>may be <em>Vriddhi </em>or <em>Kshaya </em>that further leads many other bone disorders. The ayurveda described various approaches to restore physiological health of <em>Asthi</em> <em>dhatus </em>and <em>Basti chikitsa</em> is one of them. Considering thus present article summarizes physiological aspects of<em> Asthi</em> <em>dhatus</em> and role of <em>Basti chikitsa</em> towards the management of pathological disturbances related to the <em>Asthi</em> <em>dhatus.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Ayurveda, Asthi dhatus, Basti chikitsa, Physiology&nbsp; </em>&nbsp;</p> Rahul Sukhdev Bankar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10 1-s 218 220 10.22270/jddt.v10i1-s.3898