4D Printing: The Dawn of “Smart” Drug Delivery Systems and Biomedical Applications

  • Ahmar Khan Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi
  • Mir Javid Iqbal Department of Clinical Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Aseer, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Saima Amin Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Delhi, India
  • Humaira Bilal Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • , Bilquees Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Aneeza Noor Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Bushra Mir Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Mahak Deep Kaur Department of Pharmaceutics, Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Landran, Mohali Punjab, India

Abstract

With the approval of first 3D printed drug “spritam” by USFDA, 3D printing is gaining acceptance in healthcare, engineering and other aspects of life. Taking 3D printing towards the next step gives birth to what is referred to as “4D printing”. The full credit behind the unveiling of 4D printing technology in front of the world goes to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), who revealed “time” in this technology as the fourth dimension.  4D printing is a renovation of 3D printing wherein special materials (referred to as smart materials) are incorporated which change their morphology post printing in response to a stimulus. Depending upon the applicability of this technology, there may be a variety of stimuli, most common among them being pH, water, heat, wind and other forms of energy.  The upper hand of 4D printing over 3D printing is that 3D printed structures are generally immobile, rigid and inanimate whereas 4D printed structures are flexible, mobile and able to interact with the surrounding environment based on the stimulus. This capability of 4D printing to transform 3D structures into smart structures in response to various stimuli promises a great potential for biomedical and bioengineering applications. The potential of 4D printing in developing pre-programmed biomaterials that can undergo transformations lays new foundations for enabling smart pharmacology, personalized medicine, and smart drug delivery, all of which can help in combating diseases in a smarter way. Hence, the theme of this paper is about the potential of 4D printing in creating smart drug delivery, smart pharmacology, targeted drug delivery and better patient compliance. The paper highlights the recent advancements of 4D printing in healthcare sector and ways by which 4D printing is doing wonders in creating smart drug delivery and tailored medicine. The major constraints in the approach have also been highlighted.


Keywords: 4D printing, smart, drug delivery system, patient compliance, biomaterials, tailored medicine

Keywords: 4D printing, smart, drug delivery system, patient compliance, biomaterials, tailored medicine

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ahmar Khan, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Delhi, India

Mir Javid Iqbal, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Aseer, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Aseer, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Saima Amin, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Delhi, India

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, Delhi, India

Humaira Bilal, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

, Bilquees, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Aneeza Noor, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Bushra Mir, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Mahak Deep Kaur, Department of Pharmaceutics, Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Landran, Mohali Punjab, India

Department of Pharmaceutics, Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Landran, Mohali Punjab, India

References

1. Tren SJ, Awad A, Goyanes A, Gaisford S, Basit AW. 3D Printing Pharmaceuticals : Drug Development to Frontline Care. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2018; 39(5):440-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2018.02.006
2. Awad A, Tren SJ, Gaisford S, Basit AW. 3D printed medicines : A new branch of digital healthcare. Int J Pharm. 2018; 548(July):586-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.07.024
3. Zema L, Melocchi A, Maroni A, Gazzaniga A. Three-Dimensional Printing of Medicinal Products and the Challenge of Personalized Therapy. J Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2017; 106(7):1697-705. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2017.03.021
4. Awad A, Trenfield SJ, Goyanes A, Gaisford S, Basit AW. Reshaping drug development using 3D printing. Drug Discov Today [Internet]. 2018; 23(8):1547-55. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2018.05.025
5. Firth J, Gaisford S, Basit AW. A New Dimension : 4D Printing Opportunities in Pharmaceutics. In: Jack Firth, Simon Gaisford AWB, editor. 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals [Internet]. p. 153-62. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90755-0_8
6. Li X, Shang J, Wang Z. Intelligent materials: A review of applications in 4D printing. Assem Autom. 2017; 37(2):170-85. https://doi.org/10.1108/AA-11-2015-093
7. Tibbits S. 4D printing : another dimension. 2018; 1-4.
8. Kuang X, Roach DJ, Wu J, Hamel CM, Ding Z, Wang T, et al. Advances in 4D Printing : Materials and Applications. 2019; 1805290:1-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201805290
9. JO W, CHU K, LEE H, MOON M. 3D and 4D printing technologies: an overview. Mater Matters. 2016; 11(2):56-8. https://doi.org/10.1089/3dp.2015.0039
10. Momeni F, N SMMH, Liu X, Ni J. A review of 4D printing. Mater Des [Internet]. 2017; 122:42-79. Available from: \ https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.02.068
11. Lu HZ, Yang C, Luo X, Ma HW, Song B, Li YY, et al. Materials Science & Engineering A Ultrahigh-performance TiNi shape memory alloy by 4D printing. 2019; 763(May). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2019.138166
12. Siang Y, Ting W, Poh L, Wu Y, Lai Y, Li H. Acta Biomaterialia 4D Printing and Stimuli-responsive Materials in Biomedical Applications. Acta Biomater [Internet]. 2019; 92:19-36. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2019.05.005
13. Alan Lai, Zehui Du, Chee Lip Gan CAS. Shape Memory and Superelastic Ceramics at Small Scales. American Association for the Advancement of Science [Internet]. 2013 Sep; 341(6153):1505-8. Available from: www.sciencemag.org https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239745
14. Han D, Morde RS, Mariani S, Mattina AA La, Vignali E, Yang C, et al. 4D Printing of a Bioinspired Microneedle Array with Backward-Facing Barbs for Enhanced Tissue Adhesion. 2020; 1909197. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201909197
15. He H, Guan J, Lee JL. An oral delivery device based on self-folding hydrogels. 2006; 110:339-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2005.10.017
16. Malachowski K, Breger J, Kwag HR, Wang MO, Fisher JP, Selaru FM, et al. Stimuli-Responsive Theragrippers for Chemomechanical Controlled Release ** Angewandte. 2014; 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.201311047
17. Azam A, Laflin KE, Jamal M, Fernandes R, Gracias DH. Self-folding micropatterned polymeric containers. 2011; 51-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10544-010-9470-x
18. Stoychev G, Puretskiy N, Ionov L. Self-folding all-polymer thermoresponsive microcapsules. Soft Matter. 2011; 7(7):3277-9. https://doi.org/10.1039/c1sm05109a
19. Yoon C, Xiao R, Park J, Cha J. Functional stimuli responsive hydrogel devices by self-folding. 094008. https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/23/9/094008
20. Li H, Go G, Ko SY, Park J, Park S. Magnetic actuated pH-responsive hydrogel- based soft micro-robot for targeted drug delivery. Smart Mater Struct [Internet]. 25(2):27001. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/25/2/027001
21. Manchun S, Dass CR, Sriamornsak P. Targeted therapy for cancer using pH-responsive nanocarrier systems. Life Sci [Internet]. 2012; 90(11-12):381-7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2012.01.008
22. Swietach P, Vaughan-jones RD, Harris AL, Hulikova A. The chemistry , physiology and pathology of pH in cancer. Philos Trans R Soc B. 2014; 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0099
23. Tong Z, Luo W, Wang Y, Yang F, Han Y, Li H, et al. Tumor Tissue-Derived Formaldehyde and Acidic Microenvironment Synergistically Induce Bone Cancer Pain. 2010; 5(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010234
24. Jadhav RG, Das AK. 10. Four dimensional printing in healthcare [Internet]. 3D Printing in Medicine. Elsevier Ltd; 2017. 207-218 p. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100717-4.00010-7
25. Yu Y, Moncal KK, Li J, Peng W, Rivero I, Martin JA, et al. Three-dimensional bioprinting using self-assembling scalable scaffold-free " tissue strands " as a new bioink. Nat Publ Gr [Internet]. 2016;(February):1-11. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep28714
26. Mironov V, Visconti RP, Kasyanov V, Forgacs G, Drake CJ, Markwald RR. Biomaterials Organ printing : Tissue spheroids as building blocks q. Biomaterials [Internet]. 2009; 30(12):2164-74. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.12.084
27. Morrison RJ, Hollister SJ, Niedner MF, Mahani MG, Park AH, Mehta DK, et al. Mitigation of tracheobronchomalacia with 3D-printed personalized medical devices in pediatric patients. Sci Transl Med. 2015; 7(285):1-12. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3010825
28. Chu H, Yang W, Sun L, Cai S, Yang R, 4D Printing : A Review on Recent Progresses, Micromachines. 2020; 11:1-30. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090796
29. Kirillova A, Maxson R, Stoychev G, Gomillion CT, Ionov L. 4D Biofabrication Using Shape-Morphing Hydrogels. Adv Mater. 2017; 1703443:1-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201703443
30. Alexa V, Raiu SA. Advancements in the Research of 4D Printing-A Review ADVANCEMENTS IN THE RESEARCH OF 4D PRINTING-A REVIEW. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2018
Statistics
168 Views | 19 Downloads
How to Cite
1.
Khan A, Iqbal MJ, Amin S, Bilal H, Bilquees , Noor A, Mir B, Kaur M. 4D Printing: The Dawn of “Smart” Drug Delivery Systems and Biomedical Applications. JDDT [Internet]. 15Oct.2021 [cited 1Dec.2021];11(5-S):131-7. Available from: http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5068