Determinants of adherence to ARVs in HIV+ women enrolled in the PMTCT program in the West and North Regions of Cameroon
Background: According to UNAIDS 2019, 52% of people worldwide living with HIV is on antiretrovirals (ARVs), HIV positive women representing 80% of them. This study aimed at highlighting the determinants of adherence to ARVs for HIV positive women enrolled in PMTCT programs in the West and North Regions of Cameroon.
Methods: A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was carried out from February to September 2019 in three treatment centres in the West (Bafoussam Regional Hospital and Dschang District Hospital) and North (Garoua Regional Hospital) regions in Cameroon. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered face to face and encoded in Excel 2013, then analyzed using SAS version 7.8. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant
Results: One thousand (1000) women were interviewed. The mean age was 17 ±2 years (Range: 12 – 67 years); 231 (23.1%) were single. Overall, the prevalence of ART-adherence was 68.6%. After multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression; having one HIV-infected children (aOR=60.9; 95%CI=[7.6; 489.1]; P=0.001), non-disclosure of serological status with the spouse/boyfriend (aOR=25.2; 95%CI=[9.2; 68.9]; P<0.001), not being educated (aOR=7.7; 95%CI=[4.4; 13.3]; P<0.001); and taking ARVs once or less daily (aOR=50; 95%CI=[20.0; 100.0]; P<0.001) were four risk factors for non-adherence.
Conclusion: ART-adherence among Cameroonian pregnant women is still very far below UNAIDS target (95%), with four potential key determinants identified. As we are progressively moving towards the elimination of HIV vertical transmission in 2030 as advocated by UNAIDS, local policies should be reinforced in order to consolidate the strides made so far.
Keywords: HIV, PMTCT, Pregnancy, Adherence, option B+, Cameroon.
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