Pattern of antibiotics resistance and phenotypic characterization of Multidrug resistant bacteria isolates in four hospitals of Littoral region, Cameroon
Objective: To describe the pattern of antibiotics resistance and phenotypic characterization of Multidrug resistant bacteria isolates in four hospitals of Littoral region, Cameroon.
Methods: We conducted a descriptive hospital based cross-sectional study from December 2018 to May 2019. A simple random sampling was used to swap 10 selected equipment and 10 materials in the mornings after disinfection but before the start of work in seven units. After inoculation in four agar media consecutively (Eosine Metyleine blue, Cled, Manitol salt agar and blood agar ) and incubated in appropriate conditions, the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility test.
Results: Among 50.4% (119/236) showed positive bacteria growth, a total of 89 (13 species), predominant bacteria and those more likely to cause nosocomial infections were selected and tested each one to 18 antibiotics. There was high level of resistance to Penicillin (amoxicillin (77.5%) and Oxacillin (76.4%)), followed by 3G Cephalosporine (Ceftazidime (74.2%)) and Monobactam (Aztreonam (70.8%)). Although the least level of resistance was observed in Carbapenem (imipenem (5.6%)). The overall prevalence of MDRB was 62.9% (56/89). MRSA were the mostly detected 57.5 % (30/89), followed by ESBL 10.1% (9/89). Military hospital of Douala and Emergency unit was the MDRBs dominantly contaminated area respectively 39.3% (22/56) and 17.9% (10/56).
Conclusion: MDRB occurred to be a current public health problem as well as hospital surfaces are worrying reservoir that can be spread to patient, health professionals and visitors.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, susceptibility test, multidrug-resistant bacteria, Hospital facilities, Units, Littoral Region-Cameroon
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