Pharmacognostic Screening and Anti-inflammatory Investigation of the Methanol extract of stem bark of Blighia unijugata Baker (Sapindaceae)
Introduction: Blighia unijugata is a potent medicinal plant extensively employed in traditional herbal remedies for the treatment of various diseases such as fever, fertility, inflammation, hypertension, migraine and treatment of infections due to microorganisms.
Aim: This work, investigates the pharmacognostic screening and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of B. unijugata stem bark.
Method: Collection, drying, pulverization, and methanol extraction of the stem bark were done accordingly. The screening of phytochemical constituents and Pharmacognostic numerical data were carried out. The chromatographic analysis was carried out using TLC. The acute toxicity was determined using Lorke’s method. Methanol extract was investigated for anti-inflammatory effect in albino rats using egg-induced hind paw oedema at doses of 200, 400 and 600mg/kg body weight respectively.
Result: The macroscopical investigation showed the stem bark outer layer is greyish and, the inner layer is pale reddish brown, disagreeable odour, bitter, Microscopical screening revealed the presence of starch grains, trichomes and sclerenchyma cells. Chemomicroscopic result revealed the presence of lignin, starch, calcium oxalate, cellulose, stone cells. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the powdered bark showed the presence of saponins, steroids, tannins, and resins. Numerical data: moisture content/ weight loss on drying gave value of 7.7%, percentage yield of 6.7%, alcoholic soluble extractive 5.6%, water soluble extractive 6.3%, total ash of 7.1%, acid insoluble ash 0.57% and water soluble ash 4.56%. The chromatographic screening results were close compared with the standard drug. Toxicity test established the lethal dose of greater than 5000mg/kg. There was a significant inhibition of the edema p>0.05, the presence of various bioactive constituents may have contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of the plant extract.
Conclusion: The result of this study confirms that the barks of B. unijugata have anti-inflammatory effect and justifies the use as traditional treatment of inflammation and pain.
Keywords: Blighia unijugata, Inflammation, Inflammatory agents, Anti inflammatory
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