Evaluation of Antibiotic Prescription and Utilization amongst Hospitalized Children in a Tertiary Facility in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria
ANTIBIOTIC USE IN ADMITTEC CHILDREN
Background: Antibiotics are the most widely utilized therapeutic agents. Inappropriate use causes increase cost and antibiotic resistance. The World Health Organization recommends assessment of antibiotics use to guide prescribing practices.
Objective: To describe the pattern of antibiotic usage among paediatric inpatients aged > 1 month to 15 years in a tertiary hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria.
Methods: Febrile children were recruited prospectively by systematic random sampling from January to October 2018. Socio-demographics, diagnosis, antibiotics administered were obtained from case notes. The WHO indicators of use of antibiotics were employed for evaluation. Data was analysed with SPSS version 23.
Results: Out of 352 children, 318 (90.3%) received antibiotics; commonest being Ceftriaxone in 155/318 (48.7%), Cefuroxime in 74 (23.2%), and Metronidazole in 29 (9.1%). Average number of antibiotics per patient was 2.3±1.1 with treatment duration of 4.3±1.4days. Antibiotic consumption was 937.2 days of antibiotic therapy/1000 patient days (DOT/PD). Generic name was used in 92.3% while 100% of the drugs were on the essential medicine list. Frequent diagnoses were severe malaria 98/352 (27.8%), respiratory infections 39 (11.1%) and severe malnutrition in 38 (10.8%). Only 6 (1.7%) patients had microbiologic evidence of infection.
Conclusion: Utilization of antibiotics is higher than recommended. There is need for improved diagnostic facilities to avoid antibiotic overuse and its consequences.
Keywords: antibiotics, prescription, utilization, children, inpatients, DOT
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