Epigenetics: Pharmacology and Modification Mechanisms Involved in Cardiac, Hepatic and Renal Disease
For a long time scientists have tried to describe disorders are due to genetic as well as environmental factors. In the past few years, revolution in technology that has made it possible to decipher the human genome. Epigenetics explains the capability gene expression regulation without modifying the genetic sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms are rooted changes in molecules, or nuclear characteristics that can alter gene expression without altering the sequences of DNA, i.e. DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs. Learning of the fundamental epigenetic modification allowing gene expression as well as cellular phenotype are advanced that novel insights into the epigenetic control of cardiovascular disease, hepatic disease, as well as chronic kidney disease are now emerging. From a half of century ago, in human disease the role of epigenetics has been considered. This subject has attracted many interests in the past decade, especially in complicated diseases like cardiovascular disease, hepatic disease as well as chronic kidney disease. This review first illustrates the history and classification of epigenetic modifications and the factors (i.e. genetic, environment, dietary, thought process and lifestyle) affecting to the epigenetics mechanisms. Likewise, the epigenetics role in human diseases is think out by targeting on some diseases and at the end, we have given the future perspective of this field. This review article provides concepts with some examples to describe a broad view of distinct aspects of epigenetics in biology and human diseases.
Keywords: - Epigenetics, DNA methylation, Histone modiﬁcations, microRNAs and Gene expression and Disease.
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