Effect of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis leaves on reproductive functions in wistar female rats

  • Mataphouet Emmanuel AFFY Endocrinology and reproductive biology laboratory, UFR Biosciences, Félix Houphouët Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22.
  • Wahon Marie-Odile TOVI Endocrinology and reproductive biology laboratory, UFR Biosciences, Félix Houphouët Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22.
  • N’guessan Ernest ZOUGROU Endocrinology and reproductive biology laboratory, UFR Biosciences, Félix Houphouët Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22.
  • Koffi KOUAKOU Endocrinology and reproductive biology laboratory, UFR Biosciences, Félix Houphouët Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22.


Objective : The aim of this study is to determine the pharmacological effects and the estrogenic properties of Amaranthus viridis leaves on the reproductive function of animal model (female rat).

Methods : Vaginal smears performed 9 days before treatment allowed to select female rats having alternated on two cycles a regularity. Thereafter, the selected rats were administered by gavage daily for 28 days taking care of smear every morning at 7am from the first day of treatment follow the evolution of the cycle. For this study 20 nulliparous rats, 2 months old, weighing between 120-150 g. The first group (control) was administered with olive oil and the other three batches received respectively the doses 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg of the methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis. At the end of the 28-day treatment, ovary and uterine horn were removed, histological and hormonal parameters were studied for determine pharmacological effects of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis.

Results : The extract caused a disturbances of the cycle according to the doses administered. Disturbances at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg PC are significant. The calculation of the total duration of the different phases of the cycle revealed very significant increases in the estrous phase (P<0.01) by 22.79 % and 17.13 % at the respective doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w compared to control. Non-significant difference was recorded on FSH, LH and estradiol level. On progesterone level, administration of the methanolic extract showed a significant difference at dose of 600 mg/kg b.w compared to control. On histological structure of the ovary, the presence of active and degenerate corpus luteum, secondary follicles depending on the dose administered were recored.

Conclusion : The results showed that the methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis contain estrogenic substances or estrogen-like substances according to a dose-dependent mechanism, with high estrogenic potential at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w .

Keywords: vaginal smears, Amaranthus viridis, methanolic extract, histology


Download data is not yet available.


[1] René F. La reproduction humaine du médical au sociétal. Infertilité, Prise en Charge Globale et Thérapeutique. Book. 2016 : 13-15
[2] Inserm (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale). Les troubles de la fertilité : état des connaissances et pistes pour la recherche. Rapport du groupe de travail (France). 2012: 125 p
[3] Barillier H. La stérilité féminine : Prise en charge actuelle en France. Thèse d’Etat de Docteur en pharmacie (France). 2007 : 200 P
[4] WHO.Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002–2005. Genève, WHO/ EDM/ TRM. 2002; 1:1-63.
[5] Mahdi M., Rozhin N. and Fariba Heshmati Afshar.+ Screening of Different Extracts from Artemisia Species for Their Potential Antimalarial Activity. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015 ; 14 (2): 603-608
[6] Belay M., Assefa B. A. and Zewdu B. W. Antidiarrheal Activity of 80% Methanolic Leaf Extract of Justicia schimperiana. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018 ; 10 p
[7] Trabi F., Guy M., N’gaman K. et Clejesson M. Études de quelques plantes thérapeutiques utilisées dans le traitement de l’hypertension artérielle et du diabète : deux maladies émergentes en Côte d’Ivoire. Sciences & Nature. 2008 ; 5 (1): 39-48
[8] Blahi A. N. M., Zougrou N. E., Gnahoué G. and Kouakou K. Mechanism of Action of the Aqueous Leaves Extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) on the Reproductive System of Female Rat. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology Advances. 2016 ; 6(12): 950-959
[9] Zougrou N. E., Blahi A. N., Kouassi K. D. and Kouakou K. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Cnestis Ferruginea on the Histological Structure of Female Rat Ovary and Uterine Horns. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res. 2018 ; 2(1) : 2073-2078
[10] Bleu G. M., Kouakou K., Zahoui O. S., Touré A. and Traoré Flavien. Oral acute toxicity and estrogenic effects of the extracts of Passiflora foetida Linn. (Passifloraceae) leaves in female Wistar albino rats. Annals of Biological Research. 2012 ; 3 (9):4609-4616
[11] Ashok K., Lakshman K., Narayan S., Arun K., Sheshadri S., Manoj B. and Vishwantha G. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011; 4(2):125-130
[12] Sravan P., Venkateshwarlu G., Bhasker K., Suvarna P. et Sanjusha C., 2011. Effects of anti-inflammatory activity of Amaranthus viridis Linn. Scholars Research Library; Annals of Biological Research. 2011; 2 (4): 435-438
[13] Bruna C., Giordano B. M., Roney M. B., Ivoney G., Marcelo S. and Valdenir J. Evaluation of antifungal activity of Amaranthus viridis L. (Amaranthaceae) on Fusariosis by Piper nigrum L. and on Antrachnose by Musa sp. Agricultural Journal. 2012; 7 (3) :215-2019
[14] Bleu G. Etude phytochimique, toxicologique et pharmacologique de Passiflora foetida Linn. (Passifloraceae), une plante utilisée dans le traitement de l’infertilité féminine. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny Cocody-Abidjan. 2013 : 188 p
[15] Kouakou K. Etude des effets antifertilisants de l’extrait de deux champignons (Daldinia concentrica, Bolt.1863 et Psathyrella efflorescens, Berk, 1977) de la pharmacopée ivoirienne chez la ratte. Thèse de Doctorat 3ème cycle, Université de Cocody-Abidjan. 2000 : 122 p
[16] Blahi A. Effets pharmacologiques de l’extrait aqueux de feuilles de Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) sur le système reproducteur des rats. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Félix Houphouet Boigny, Cocody-Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). 2017 : 193 P
[17] Maeda K., Ohkura S. and Tsukamura H. Physiology of reproduction. In: “The H andbook of experimental Animals- the laboratory Rat”. Krinke G.J. (Ed.), London, Academic Press. 2000 : 145-171 pp
[18] Hubscher C., Brooks D. et Johnson J. A quantitive method for assessing stages of the rat estrous cycle. Biotechnic and Histochemistry. 2005 ; 80: 79-87
[19] Affy M. E., BLAHI A. N., Coulibaly F. A. and Kouakou K. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity induced by methanol extract of Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae) leaves in wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2018; 7(7): 625-630
[20] Ashok K., Lakshmanb K., Jayaveeac K. N., Sheshadri S. D., Saleemulla K., Thippeswamyf B. S. and Veeresh P. V. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis Linn in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. 2012 ; 64 : 75– 79
[21] Mustapha A., Bawa E., Ogwu D., Abdullahi U., Kaikabo A. and Diarra S. Effects of ethanolic extract of Rhynchosia sublobata (Schumach) Meikle on estrous cycle in Wistar rats. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2011 ; 1 (2): 122-127
[22] Nikolić I., Ivana M. S., Ana D. and Ivan M. Classification and biological activity of phytoestrogens: a review. Advanced technologies. 2017 ; 6 (2) : 96-106
[23] Hu J-Y. and Aizawa T. Quantitative structure-activity relationship for estrogen receptor binding sites in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons of the rat brain. Endocrinology. 2003 ; 14: 3506-3509
[24] Yildiz, F.: Phytoestrogens in Functional Foods. Taylor & Francis Ltd. 2005 : 210-211, 3-5 pp
[25] Westwood F. The Female Rat Reproductive Cycle: A Practical Histological Guide to Staging. Toxicologic Pathology. 2008 ; 36: 375-384
[26] Diel P., Schmidt S. and Vollmer G. In vivo test systems fort he quantitative and qualitative analysis of he biological activity of phytoestrogen. Journal of Chromatography B. 2002 ; 777(1-2): 191-202
[27] Shaik A., Rupesh S., Rajaram C., Nelson K., Prasanth R. and Saisaran S. Antifertility activity of Artemisia vulgaris leaves on female Wistar rats. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 2014 ; 12 (3): 180−185
[28] El Mahady M., Kawkab A., Badawy S., Ahmed Y. and Aly M. Pathological and Hormonal Effects of Aflatoxins on Reproduction of Female Albino Rats. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences. 2015; 5 (4): 1-9
[29] Heffner L. Reproduction humaine. Science Medicales, Serie Laennec. Edition De Boeck Université, Paris. 2003 : 128 P
[30] Young J., Gougeon A. and Schaison G. Le cycle ovarien. Médecine Sciences. 1999 ; 15 (2): 183-190
115 Views | 91 Downloads
How to Cite
AFFY ME, TOVI WM-O, ZOUGROU NE, KOUAKOU K. Effect of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis leaves on reproductive functions in wistar female rats. JDDT [Internet]. 15Dec.2019 [cited 31Oct.2020];9(6-s):119-26. Available from: http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3775