Microsponges: A Novel Strategy to Control the Delivery Rate of Active Agents with Reduced Skin Irritancy

  • PRAMILA VISHWAKARMA Chameli Devi Institute of Pharmacy Indore M.P., India
  • Ramraj Choudhary Chameli Devi Institute of Pharmacy Indore M.P., India


Microsponges are particulate system which is composed by porous polymeric material. As compare to Conventional topical formulations, microsponge provide controlled release of the drug in the epidermis, it is to ensure that the drug is mainly localized and does not unduly entering the systemic circulation, it is a new area of research. The active ingredient needs to maximize the time to stay on the skin, while reducing transdermal penetration. Apart from this, there is a problem of unethical vehicles that can be viscous sticky deformation and skin irritation.  One of the biggest challenges of now a days is to control irritability for a predetermined site of active agents in the human body. Microsponges delivery system is a unique technique for controlled release with low irritant involving many triggers of Mechanism for the release of drugs. The Microsponge Delivery system is a polymeric porous microspheres, which can trap a wide range of effective elements such as anti-fungus, anti-infected, anti- inflammatory agent, fragrance and essential agent. This review includes different techniques used to prepare microsponges, formulation consideration, safety consideration, drug release mechanism, and challenges with microsponge drug delivery system along with their advantages, disadvantages and applications. In the current review, we summarize the updated application and capacity of Microsponge as an effective drug-delivery system to reduce skin irritation.

Keywords: Microsponges; quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion; Porous microspheres; Controlled release.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Aloorkar N H, Kulkarni A S, Ingale D J, Patil R A, Micro Sponges as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2012, 5(1), 1597-1606.
2. Saboji J, Manvi F, Gadad A and Patel B, Formulation and evaluation of ketoconazole microsponge gel by quassi emulsion solvent diffusion., J Cell Tissue Res., 2011; 11(1):2691–6.
3. Chowdary K P R, Srinivasa Rao Y., Mucoadhesive microspheres for controlled drug delivery, Biol Pharmaceut Bull. 2004; 27(11):1717–24.
4. Sevgi F, Yurdasiper A, Kaynarsoy B, Turunç E, Güneri T and Yalçın A, Studies on mefenamic acid microparticles: formulation, in vitro release, and in situ studies in rats, AAPS PharmSciTech. 2009; 10(1):104–12.
5. Hu S-H, Liu T-Y, Liu D-M, Chen S-Y, Nano-ferrosponges for controlled drug release, J Control Rel. 2007;121(3):181–9.
6. Orlu M, Cevher E, Araman A, Design and evaluation of colon specific drug delivery system containing flurbiprofen microsponges, Int J Pharmaceut. 2006 Aug 2; 318(1–2):103–17.
7. Devrim B, Canefe K., Preparation and evaluation of modified release ibuprofen microspheres with acrylic polymers (eudragit) by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method: effect of variables, Acta Poloniae Pharm Drug Res. 2006; 63:521–34.
8. Hong Y, Gao C, Shi Y and Shen J, Preparation of porous polylactide microspheres by emulsion‐solvent evaporation based on solution induced phase separation. Polymer Adv Technol. 2005; 16(8):622–7.
9. Chandramouli Y, Shaik Firoz B, Yasmeen R, Vikram A, Mahitha B and Aruna U. Microsponges: A Novel Drug Delivery System For Controlled Delivery Of Topical Drugs, ijpra, 2012-, 2(2), 79-86.
10. Kumari A, Hurkat P,Verma A,Jain SK, Microsponges: A Pioneering Tool for Biomedical Applications, Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, , 2016, Volume 33.
11. Patel E K, Oswal R J, “Nanosponge and Micro Sponges: A Novel Drug Delivery System”, International Journal of Research in Pharmacy And Chemistry, 2012, 2(2), 237-244.
12. Kaity S, Maiti S, Ghosh A Pal K, D, Ghosh A and Banerjee S, Microsponges: a novel strategy for drug delivery system, J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010 Jul; 1(3):283–90.
13. Nacht S, Katz. The microsponge: a novel topical programmable delivery system. In: Osborne DW AA, editor, Topical drug delivery formulations, New York: Marcel Dekker; 1990, 299–325.
14. Embil K and Nacht S. The Microsponge Delivery System (MDS): a topical delivery system with reduced irritancy incorporating multiple triggering mechanisms for the release of actives. J Microencapsul. 1996 Sep–Oct;13(5):575 88
15. Barkai A, Pathak Y, Benita S. Polyacrylate (Eudragit retard) microspheres for oral controlled release of nifedipine. I. Formulation design and process optimization, Drug Devel Indust Pharm. 1990; 16(13):2057–75.
16. Solanki D, Patidar S, Kag N, Motiwale M, Kushwah L and Mewade A, An Overview of Microsponge as a Novel Tool in Drug Delivery, Ijppr.Human, 2017; Vol. 9 (2): 64-77.
17. Mohite P B, Khanage S G, Harishchandre V S, Shirsath Y, Recent Advances In Microsponges Drug Delivery System, J Crit Rev, Vol 3, Issue 1, 9-16, 2016.
18. Manisha K T, Pawar A.Y, Microsponges: A Novel Strategy for Drug Delivery, International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience, 2015, 3 (1), 224-235.
19. Verma N K, Panda P, Mishra J N, Vishwakarma D K, Gulzar A and Singh A P, Microsponges: An Approach to Novel Drug Delivery System-A Review, International Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015, 3(5), 1719–1725.
20. Hussain H, Juyal D, Dhyani A, Microsponges: An Overview, International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology, 2014, 4(4), 58-66.
21. D Kapoor, R B Vyas, C Lad, M Patel and B L Tyagi, A Review On Microsponge Drug Delivery System, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2014, 4(5), 29-35.
22. Gangadharappa H V, Gupta N V, Prasad M S, Shivakumar H G, Current trends in microsponge drug delivery system. Curr Drug Deliv. 2013 Aug;10(4):453–65
23. Souza J D’, Masvekar R, Pattekari P, Pudi S, More H, Microspongic delivery of fluconazole for topical application. 1st Indo-Japanese International Conference on Advances in Pharmaceutical Research and Technology. Mumbai, India: Pharmaceutical Research and Technology. 2005:25–9.
24. Aritomi H, Yamasaki Y, Yamada K, Honda H, Koishi M, Development of sustained-release formulation of chlorpheniramine maleate using powder-coated microsponge prepared by dry impact blending method. Pharmaceuticals (Japanese). 1996; 56(1):49–56.
25. Amrutiya N, Bajaj A, Madan M, Development of microsponges for topical delivery of mupirocin. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2009; 10(2):402–9.
26. Patel G, Patel JK, Use of a Microsponge in Drug Delivery Systems Pharmaceutical processing, 2008, 158.
27. Saraf A, Dasani A, Prathan HK. Microsponge Drug Delivery System AsAn Innovation in Cosmetic World: A Review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2012; 2278-7496.
28. Kircik L H. The microsponge delivery system reduces facial oiliness and shine during acne therapy. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013 Nov; 12(11):1268–70.
29. Shaha, V,Jain H,Krishna J,Patel P, Microsponge drug delivery: A Review International Journal of research in pharmaceutical sciences,Vol-1, Issue-2, 2010212-218,
30. Berg R A, Dean R C, Maffia G J, Phillips P G, Runstadler P W, Silver F H. Weighted collagen microsponge for immobilizing bioactive materials. Google Patents; 1989
31. Pandit A P, Patel S A, V P Bhanushali, V S Kulkarni and V D. Kakad. Nebivolol-Loaded Microsponge Gel for Healing of Diabetic Wound, AAPS PharmSciTech June 2016.
32. Mantry S, Bagchi A, Das S, Microsponge As A Novel Strategy of Drug Delivery System, Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research,2015, 1 (1), 32-38.
33. Patel G and Patel JK, Use of a Microsponge in Drug Delivery Systems. Pharmaceutical processing 2008; 158.
34. Jain V, Jain D, Singh R, Factors effecting the morphology of eudragit S‐100 based microsponges bearing dicyclomine for colonic delivery. J Pharmaceut Sci. 2011; 100(4):1545–52.
35. Vyas L. K., Tapar K. K., Laddha B. H., Lahoti A. O. and Nema R. K. Formulation and development of anti-blemish preparation using microsponge technology, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research,2010, 2(5):562-571.
36. Guyot M, and Fawaz, F, Microspheres- Preparation & physical characteristics, Int J Pharmaceutics, 1998:175: 61-74.
37. Won R, Two step method for preparation of controlled release formulations. Google Patents; 1992.
38. Martin A., Swarbrick J. & Cammarrata A., In: Physical Pharmacy-Physical Chemical Principles, Pharma-ceutical Sciences. 3rd Ed., 1991, 527.
39. Dubey D, Malviya R, Sharma P K, Advancement in microsponge drug delivery system: preparation methods, patents and commercial utility. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul. 2014.
40. Jadhav N, Patel V, Mungekar,S Bhamare G, KarpeM and Kadams V. Microsponge Delivery System: An updated review, current status and future prospects. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research, 2013, 2 (6), 1097-1110.
41. Ravi R, Senthil S K, Parthiban S, Microsponges Drug Delivery System: A Review, International Journal of Pharmacy Review & Research, 2013, 3(1), 6-11.
42. Abdelmalak NS, Menshawe S F El, A new topical fluconazole microsponge loaded hydrogel: preparation and characterization, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012; 4(Suppl 1):460–8.
43. Deshmukh K, Poddar S S, Tyrosinase inhibitor-loaded microsponge drug delivery system: new approach for hyperpigmentation disorders, J Microencapsulation. 2012; 29(6):559–68.
44. Patil R S, Kemkar V U, Patil S S, Microsponge Drug Delivery System: A Novel Dosage Form, American Journal of Pharmatech Research, 2012, 2(4), 228-251.
45. Rizkalla C M Z , latif Aziz R, II Soliman, In vitro and in vivo evaluation of hydroxyzine hydrochloride microsponges for topical delivery, AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011; 12(3):989–1001.
46. Kydonieus A F, Berner B, Transdermal delivery of drugs, CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1987.
47. Tansel C, Omoglu CT, Baykara T, The effects of pressure and direct compression on tabletting of microsponges, Int. J. Pharm., 242 (2002), pp. 191-195
48. Sareen R, Nath K, Jain N, Dhar K, Curcumin loaded microsponges for colon targeting in inflammatory bowel disease: fabrication, optimization, and in vitro and pharmacodynamic evaluation, BioMed Res Int. 2014;1–7.
49. Bothiraja C, Gholap A D, Shaikh K S, Pawar A P, Investigation of ethyl cellulose microsponge gel for topical delivery of eberconazole nitrate for fungal therapy. Therapeut Deliv. 2014; 5(7):781–94.
50. Comoglu T, Savaser A, Ozkan Y , Gonul N, Baykara T, Enhancement of ketoprofen bioavailability by formation of microsponge tablets, Die Pharmazie. 2007 Jan; 62(1):51–4.
51. Maiti S, Kaity S, Ray S, Sa B, Development and evaluation of xanthan gum-facilitated ethyl cellulose microsponges for controlled percutaneous delivery of diclofenac sodium, Acta pharmaceutica (Zagreb, Croatia), 2011, Sep 1;61(3):257–70.
52. Pentewar RS*, Sumaiya K, Rohit B, Pulgamwar G, MDS Technology: An Approach for Topical, Oral Controlled and Cosmetic Formulations, ISSN: 0975-8585,5(3) Page No. 1170,2014.
53. Kumar J, Muralidharan S, Ramasamy S, Microsponges Enriched Gel (MEGs): A Novel Strategy for Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System Containing Ketotifen, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2013, 5(4), 97 – 102.
54. Dean, Jr. et al received US patent no. 4863856.
129 Views | 114 Downloads
How to Cite
VISHWAKARMA P, Choudhary R. Microsponges: A Novel Strategy to Control the Delivery Rate of Active Agents with Reduced Skin Irritancy. JDDT [Internet]. 15Dec.2019 [cited 31Oct.2020];9(6-s):238-47. Available from: http://www.jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3757