Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Spathodea campanulata leaves

  • Shivani Khatri Sagar Institute of Research & Technology-Pharmacy, Ayodhya Bypass Rd, Opposite, K-Sector, Minal Residency, Bhopal, MP 462041
  • R. B. Goswami Sagar Institute of Research & Technology-Pharmacy, Ayodhya Bypass Rd, Opposite, K-Sector, Minal Residency, Bhopal, MP 462041
  • Surendra Jain Sagar Institute of Research & Technology-Pharmacy, Ayodhya Bypass Rd, Opposite, K-Sector, Minal Residency, Bhopal, MP 462041


Peptic disorders like Gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastritis, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer, etc., are the common in today’s life style. This may be due to stressful life style or improper balance diet. The pathology behind these disorders may be discrepancy between offensive and defensive mechanisms either by excess secretion of acid and pepsin or diminished ability of the gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier to protect against stomach acid-pepsin secretion. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of the most commonly used medicines and proven to be effective for certain disorders. Some people use NSAIDs on daily basis for preventive purpose. But a variety of severe side effects can be induced by NSAIDs. Studies have shown that edible natural ingredients exhibit preventive benefit of gastric ulcer. Therefore present study was designed to evaluate antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Spathodea campanulata (S. campanulata) leaves in rats. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents was determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. The in vivo anti-ulcer activity of ethanolic extract was assessed against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Depending on the model, outcome measures were volume and pH of gastric fluid, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as well as percent inhibition of ulcer index. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols & tannins, saponin. Further ethanolic extract of 200 and 400mg/ kg /p.o reduced the gastric volume, pH, ulcer number, ulcer index, free acidity and total acidity in aspirin induced ulcer models in rats. The findings of this study confirmed that S. campanulata extract has anti-ulcer pharmacologic activity due to one or more of the secondary metabolites present in it. Therefore, this study validates its anti-ulcer use in Indian folk medicine. Further investigations on isolation of specific phytochemicals and elucidating mechanisms of action are needed.

Keywords: Spathodea campanulata, Phytochemical constituents, Antiulcer, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Aspirin-induced gastric ulcer.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Snowden FM. Emerging and reemerging diseases: a historical respective. Immunol Rev 2008; 225 (1): 9-26.
2. Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK. Gastroduodenal mucosal defense and mucosal protective agents. Indian J Exp Biol 1991; 29:701-714.
3. Schubert ML. Gastric secretion. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2004; 20:519-525.
4. Vonkeman HE, Klok RM, Postma MJ, et al. Direct medical costs of serious gastrointestinal ulcers among users of NSAIDs. Drugs Aging 2007; 24: 681-690.
5. Ineu RP, Pereira ME, Aschner M, et al. Diphenyl diselenide reverses gastric lesions in rats: involvement of oxidative stress. Food Chem Toxicol2008; 46: 3023-3029.
6. Derry CJ, Derry S, Moore RA. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults, in: Derry, Sheena (Eds.), Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 12-20 (Online) 3: BLOWFISH (aspirin, caffeine) tablet, effervescent [Rally Labs LLC]. Daily Med. U.S. Federal Drug Administration. Retrieved.
7. Bartfai T, Conti B. Fever. Sci World J 2010; 10: 490-503.
8. Thea M, Melanie S, Adrian H, et al. Effects of low-dose aspirin on acute inflammatory responses in humans. J Immunol 2009; 183: 2089-2096.
9. Sørensen HT, Mellemkjaer L, Blot WJ, et al. Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with use of low dose aspirin. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 95 (9): 2218-2224.
10. Bashinskaya B, Nahed BV, Redjal N, et al. Trends in peptic ulcer disease and the identification of helicobacter pylori as a causative organism: population based estimates from the US nationwide inpatient sample. J Glob Infect Dis 2011; 3 (4): 366-370.
11. Wallace JL, McKnight W, ReuterBK, et al. NSAID-induced gastric damage in rats: requirement for inhibition of both cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. Gastroenterology 2000; 119 (3):706-714.
12. Whittle BJR. Gastrointestinal effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2003; 17 (3): 301-313.
13. Lamarque D. Pathogenesis of gastroduodenal lesions induced by non- steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2004; 28:C18-C26.
14. Sathish R, Vyawahare R, Natarajan K. Antiulcerogenic activity of Lantana camara leaves on gastric and duodenal ulcers in experimental rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 134:195-197.
15. Yoganarasmiha SN. Medcinal plants of India. Karnataka: 2000; pp 442.
16. Pianaro A, Pinto JP, Ferreira DT, et al. Iridoid glucoside and antifungal phenoilic compounds from Spathodea campanulata roots. Ciencias Agrarias 2007; 28(2):251-256.
17. Ngouela S, Tsamo E, Sondengam BL, et al. Spathodol, a new polyhydroxysterol from the leaves of Spathodea campanulata. J Nat Prod 1991; 54(3): 873-876.
18. El-Hela AA. Phenolics from Spathodea campanulata Beauv. Leaves. Al-Azhar J Pharm Sci 2001a; 27: 152-162.
19. El-Hela A A. A new iridoid glucoside from Spathodea campanulata Beauv. Leaves. Al-Azhar J Pharm Sci 2001b; 27: 115-120.
20. Sankara Subramanian S, Nagarajan S, Sulochana N. Flavonoids of eight bignoniaceous plants. Phytochem 1972; 11: 1499.
21. Markinde JM, Adesogen EK, Amusan OOG. The schizontocidal activity of Spathodea campanulata leaf extract on Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice. Phytother Res 1987; 1(2): 65-68.
22. Ilodigwe EE, Akah PA. campanulata: an expermental evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of a traditional Remedy. Asian J Med Sci 2009; 1(2): 35-38.
23. Niyonzima G, Laekeman G et al., Hypoglycemic, anticomplement and anti-HIV activities Spathodea campanulata stem bark. Phytomedicine 1999; 6(1):45-49.
24. Makinde JM, Amusan OOG, Adesogan EK. The antimalarial activity of Spathodea campanulata stems bark extract on Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice. Planta Medica 1988; 54(2): 122-125.
25. Mukherjee PK. Quality Control of Herbal Drugs, 2nd Edition, Business Horizons, 2007; 2-14.
26. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. 42nd ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2008.
27. Guideline Document on Acute oral Toxicity Testing, Series on Testing and Assessment No. 423. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications; 1996. Available from: http//
28. Desai JK, Goyal RK, Parmar NS. Review Article Pathogenesis of Peptic ulcer diseases and current trends in therapy. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1997; 41: 03-15.
108 Views | 99 Downloads
How to Cite
Khatri S, Goswami RB, Jain S. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Spathodea campanulata leaves. JDDT [Internet]. 23Nov.2019 [cited 29Nov.2021];9(4-s):1012-5. Available from: