An Overview on Phyto-molecules and Screening Method of Antiurolithiatic Activity

  • Vinod Kumar Chandel Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, 462044
  • Shailesh Jain Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, 462044
  • Ankur Choubey Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, 462044


Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Kidney stones are a growing global problem. It is also known as Urolithiasis. Lithiasis is a condition where urinary calculus is formed in the kidney and urinary tract. It is a complicated urinary disorder that has gravely troubled the health and quality of human life. It has been associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure. Urinary stones affect 10-12% of the population in industrialized countries. There are only a few geographical areas in which the stone disease is rare, e.g., Germany and in the coastal areas of Japan. The etiology of kidney stone is multifactorial. The most common type of kidney stone is calcium oxalate formed at Randall’s plaque on the renal papillary surfaces. The mechanism of stone formation is a complex process which results from several physicochemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention of urinary stone constituents within tubular cells. These steps are modulated by an imbalance between factors that promote or inhibit urinary crystallization. Currently, there is no satisfactory drug to cure and/or prevent kidney stone recurrences.  Conventional agents are being used to control kidney stone along with lifestyle management.  Medicinal plants are found to be useful in this metabolic disorder from ancient days due to its no or low-toxic nature, easily available in rural areas, cheap; there are fewer chances of recurrence. Thus, further understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney stone formation is a research area to manage urolithiasis using new drugs. Therefore, this review has intended to provide compiled up-to-date information on kidney stone etiology, pathogenesis and prevention approaches and critically review the available literature on various medicinal plants with their antilithiatic activity and screening method of this activity to develop an effective drug to treat the disease.

Keywords: Kidney stones, Urolithiasis, Etiology, Calcium oxalate, Pathophysiology, Medicinal plants


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Vinod Kumar Chandel, Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, 462044

Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, 462044

Shailesh Jain, Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, 462044

Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, 462044

Ankur Choubey, Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, 462044

Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhadbhada Road, Ratibad, Bhopal, MP, 462044


1. Barrett B, Kiefer D, Rabago D. Assessing the risks and benefits of herbal medicine: an overview of scientific evidence. Altern Ther Health Med1999; 5: 40-49.
2. Black JM, Hawks JH, Medical-surgical nursing: clinical management for positive outcomes, 7th ed., Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders 2005.
3. Eknoyan G. History of urolithiasis. Clin Rev Bone Min Metab 1999; 2: 177-185.
4. McNutt WF. Chapter VII: Vesical Calculi (Cystolithiasis), in: Diseases of the kidneys and bladder: a text-book for students of medicine, IV: Diseases of the Bladder, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1893; 185-186.
5. López M, Hoppe B. History, epidemiology and regional diversities of urolithiasis. Pediatr Nephrol 2010; 25: 49-59.
6. Tiselius HG. Epidemiology and medical management of stone disease. BJU Int 2003; 91:758-767.
7. Moe OW. Kidney stones: Pathophysiology and medical management. Lancet 2006; 367: 333-344.
8. Kalpana Devi V, Baskar R, Varalakshmi P. Biochemical effects in normal and stone forming rats treated with the ripe kernel juice of Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca). Ancient Science of Life 1993; 3(4):451- 461.
9. Tiselius HG. Epidemiology and medical management of stone disease. BJU Int 2003; 91: 758-767
10. Gindi S, Methra T, Chandu BR, Boyina R, Dasari V. Antiurolithiatic and invitro anti-oxidant activity of leaves of Ageratum conyzoides in rat. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 2: 636–649.
11. Heron S, Yarnell E. Recurrent kidney stones: A naturopathic approach. Altern Complement Ther 1998; 4:60-67.
12. Aggarwal A, Tandon S, Singla S, Tandon C. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris. Int Braz J Urol 2010; 36: 480-489.
13. Baumann JM. Stone preventionhy so little progress? Urol Res 1998; 26: 77-81.
14. Baynes R, Riviere J. Risks associated with melamine and related triazine contamination of food. Emerg Health Threats J 2010; 3: e5.
15. Tiselius HG. Epidemiology and medical management of stone disease. British J Urol 2003, 91:758-767.
16. Coll DM, Varanelli MJ, Smith RC. Relationship of spontaneous passage of ureteral calculi to stone size and location as revealed by unenhanced helical CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002; 178: 101-103
17. Mandavia DR, Patel MK, Patel JC, Anovadiya AP, Baxi SN, Tripathi CR. Anti-urolithiatic effect of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex linn fruits on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi. Urol J 2013, 10, 946-952.
18. Miller NL, Lingeman JE. Management of kidney stones. Br Med J 2007; 334:468.
19. Khan A, Bashir S, Khan SR, Giyani AH. Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways. BMC Complement. Altern Med 2011; 11:96.
20. Rathod N, Biswas D, Chitme H, Ratna S, Mechanic I, Chandra R. Anti-urolithiatic effects of Punica granatum in male rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2012; 140: 234-238.
21. Coe FL, Parks JH, Asplin JR. The pathogenesis and treatment of kidney stones. N Engl J Med 1992; 327; 1141-1152.
22. Romero V, Akpinar H, Assimos DG. Kidney stones: a global picture of prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors. Reviews in Urology 2010; 12 (2-3):86-96.
23. Afsar B, Kiremit MC, Sag AA et al., The role of sodium intake in nephrolithiasis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and future directions. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016; 35:16-19.
24. Shah JG, Patel BG, Patel SB, Patel RK. Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Hordeum vulgare seeds on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Indian journal of pharmacology 2012; 44: 672.
25. Lopez M, Hoppe B. History, epidemiology and regional diversities of urolithiasis. Pediatric nephrology 2010; 25: 49.
26. Mishra LC. Scientific basis for Ayurvedic therapies, CRC press 2003.
27. Atmani F. Medical management of urolithiasis, what opportunity for phytotherapy. Front Biosci 2003; 8: 507-514.
28. Sofia HN, Walter TM. Prevalence and risk factors of kidney stone. Global J Res Analysis 2016; 5(3): 120-134.
29. Knoll T. Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology of Urolithiasis. Eur Urol Supple 2010; 9(12): 802–806.
30. Seftel A, Resnick MI. Metabolic Evaluation of urolithiasis. Urol Clin N Am 1990: 17(1): 159.
31. Balaji KC, Menon M. Mechanism of stone formation. Urol Clin N Am 1997; 24(1): 1-11.
32. Turk C, KnolL T, Petrik A, Sarica K, Straub M, Seitz C. EAU guidelines in urolithiasis, update 2013.
33. Malhotra KK. Medical aspects of renal stone. Journal Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine 2008; 9(4): 282.
34. Williams JC Jr, McAteer JA. Retention and growth of urinary stones: insights from imaging. J Nephrol 2013; 26: 25-31.
35. Basavaraj DR, Biyani CS, Anthony J, Browning A, Cartledge JJ. The role of urinary kidney stone inhibitors and promoters in the pathogenesis of calcium containing renal stones. EAU-EBU Update Series 2007; 5: 126-136.
36. Cerini C, Geider S, Dussol B, et al., Nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals by albumin: involvement in the prevention of stone formation. Kidney Int 1999; 55: 1776-1786.
37. Abdel-Aal EA, Daosukho S, El-Shall H. Effect of supersaturation ratio and Khella extract on nucleation and morphology of kidney stones. J Cryst Growth 2009; 311; 2673-2681.
38. Grases F, Sohnel O. Mechanism of oxalocalcic renal calculi generation. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 1993; 25: 209-214.
39. Evan AP, Lingeman JE, Coe FL et al., Randall's plaque of patients with nephrolithiasis begins in basement membranes of thin loops of Henle J Clin Invest 2003;111: 607-616.
40. Ratkalkar VN, Kleinma JG. Mechanisms of Stone Formation. Clin Rev Bone Miner Metab 2011; 9:187-197.
41. Słojewski M. Major and trace elements in lithogenesis. Cent European J Urol 2011; 64: 58- 61.
42. ScottR, East BW, Janczyszyn J, Boddy K, Yates AJ. Concentration of some minor and trace elements in urinary tract stones: a preliminary study. Urol Res 1980; 8: 167-169.
43. Gnessin E, Lingeman JE, Andrew P, Evan AP. Pathogenesis of renal calculi. Turk J Urol 2010; 36: 190-199.
44. Evan A, Lingeman J, Coe FL, Worcester E. Randall’s plaque: pathogenesis and role in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int 2006; 69:1313-1318.
45. Evan AP, Worcester EM, Coe FL, Williams JJr, Lingeman JE, Mechanisms of human kidney stone formation. Urolithiasis 2015;43; 19-32.
46. Aggarwal KP, Narula S, Kakkar M, Tandon C. Nephrolithiasis: molecular mechanism of renal stone formation and the critical role played by modulators. BioMed Research International 2013; 292953.
47. Khan SR, Kok DJ. Modulators of urinary stone formation. Frontiers in Bioscience, 2004;9; 1450-1482.
48. Krambeck AE, Handa SE, Evan AP, Lingeman JE. Brushite stone disease as a consequence of lithotripsy. Urological Research 2010; 38:293-299.
49. Krambeck AE, Handa SE, Evan AP, Lingeman JE. Profile of the brushite stone former. Journal of Urology2010; 184:1367-1371.
50. Tchey DU, Ha YS, Kim WT, Yun SJ, Lee SC, Kim WJ, Expectant management of ureter stones: outcome and clinical factors of spontaneous passage in a single institution’s experience. Korean J Urol 2011; 52: 847-851.
51. Frassetto L, IKohlstadt I. Treatment and prevention of kidney stones: an update. Am. Fam. Physician 2011; 84: 1234-1242.
52. Masarani M, Dinneen M Ureteric colic: new trends in diagnosis and treatment. Postgrad Med J 2007; 83: 469-472.
53. Miller OF, Kane CJ. Time to stone passage for observed ureteral calculi: a guide for patient education. J Urol 1999; 162: 688-890.
54. Butterweck V, Khan SR. Herbal medicines in the management of urolithiasis: alternative or complementary? Planta Med 2009; 75: 1095-1103.
55. Abdel-Khalek M, Sheir KZ, Mokhtar AA, et al., Prediction of success rate after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of renal stones-a multivariate analysis model. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2004; 38:161-167.
56. Yasir F, Waqar MA. Effect of indigenous plant extracts on calcium oxalate crystallization having a role in urolithiasis. Urol Res 2011; 39: 345-350.
57. Tiwari A, SoniV, Londhe V, et al., An overview on potent indigenous herbs for urinary tract infirmity: urolithiasis. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012; 5: 7-12.
58. Khan SR, Finlayson B, Hackett RL. Histologic study of the early events in oxalate induced intranephronic calculosis, Invest Urol 1979; 17: 199-202.
59. Khan SR, Shevock PN, Hackett RL. Acute hyperoxaluria, renal injury and calcium oxalate urolithiasis, J Urol 1992; 147: 226-230.
60. Khan SR. Pathogenesis of oxalate urolithiasis: lessons from experimental studies with rats, Am J Kidney Dis 1991; 17:398-401.
61. Khan SR, Hackett RL. Hyperoxaluria, enzymuria and nephrolithiasis, Contrib Nephrol 1993; 101:190-193.
62. Khan ST, Finlayson B, Hackett RL. Experimental calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in the rat: Role of the renal papilla, Am J Pathol 1982; 107; 59-69.
63. Ogawa Y, Yamaguchi K, Morozumi M. Effects of magnesium salts in preventing experimental oxalate urolithiasis in rats. J Urol 1990; 144; 385-389.
64. Khan SR, Johnson JM, Peck AB et al., Expression of osteopontin in rat kidneys: induction during ethylene-glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis J Urol 2002;168: 1173-1181.
65. De Bruijn WC, Boeve ER, Van Run PR, et al., Etiology of experimental calcium oxalate monohydrate nephrolithiasis in rats, Scanning Microsc 1994; 8:541-549.
66. De Water R, Boeve ER, Van Miert PP, et al., Experimental nephrolithiasis in rats: the effect of ethylene glycol and vitamin D3 on the induction of renal calcium oxalate crystals. Scanning Microsc 1996; 10: 591-601.
67. Eder AF, McGrath CM, Dowdy YG, et al., Ethylene glycol poisoning: toxicokinetic and analytical factors affecting laboratory diagnosis. Clin Chem 1998; 44: 168-177.
68. Yamaguchi S, Wiessner JH, Hasegawa AT, et al., Study of a rat model for calcium oxalate crystal formation without severe renal damage in selectedconditions. Int J Urol 2005; 12; 290-298.
69. Thamilselvan S, Hackett RL, Khan SK. Lipid peroxidation in ethylene glycol induced hyperoxaluria and CaOx nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1997; 157; 1059-1063.
70. Knight J, Holmes RP. Mitochondrial hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for primary hyperoxaluria. Am J Nephrol 2005; 25; 171-175?
71. Tawashi R, Cousineau M, Sharkawi M. Calcium oxalate crystal formation in the kidneys of rats injected with 4-hydroxy- L-proline, Urol Res 1980; 8; 121-127.
72. Khan SR, Glenton PA, Byer KJ. Modeling of hyperoxaluric calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: experimental induction of hyperoxaluria by hydroxy-Lproline. Kidney Int 2006; 70: 914-923.
73. Bushinsky DA, Asplin JR, Grynpas MD, et al., Calcium oxalate stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats, Kidney Int 2002; 61: 975-987.
74. Vermeulen CW, Grove WJ, Goetz R, Ragins, HD, Correl NO. Experimental urolithiasis. Developmental of calculi upon foreign bodies surgical introduction into bladder of rats. Journal of Urology 1950; 64:541-548.
75. Ghosh RB, Sur TK, Maity LN, Chakraborty SC. Antiurolithiatic activity of Coleus aromaticus benth in rats. Ancient Science of life 2000; 20(½):44-47.
76. Vargas R, Perez RM, Perez S, Zavala MA, Perez C. Antiurolithiasis activity of Raphanus sativus aqueous extract in rat. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 68:335-338.
77. Wiessner JH, Garrett MR, Hung LY, et al., Improved methodology to induce hyperoxaluria without treatment using hydroxyproline. Urol Res 2011; 39: 373-377.
78. Rushton HG, Spector M. Effects of magnesium deficiency on intratubular calcium oxalate formation and crystalluria in hyperoxaluric rats. J Urol 1982; 127 (3): 598-604.
79. Andrus SB, Gershoff SN, Faragalla FF, et al., Production of calcium oxalate renal calculi in vitamin B-6-deficient rats; study of the influence of urine Ph. Lab Invest 1960; 9:7-27.
80. Gershoff SN, Andrus SB. Dietary magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6 and experimental nephropathies in rats: calcium oxalate calculi, apatite nephrocalcinosis, J Nutr 1961; 73; 308-316.
81. Wang S, Qingquan X, Huang X, et al., Use of calcium tracer to detect stone increments in rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model. Exp Therap Med 2013; 6(4): 957-960.
82. Wolkowski RT, Chin TY, Popp JA, et al., Chemically induced urolithiasis in wealing rats. Am J Pathol 1982; 107(3): 419-421.
83. Gambaro G, Valente ML, Zanetti E, et al., Mild tubular damage induces calcium oxalate crystalluria in a model of subtle hyperoxaluria: evidence that a second hit is necessary for renal lithogenesis. J Am Soc Nep 2006; 17: 2213-2219.
84. Bashir S, Gilani AH. Antiurolithic effect of Bergenia ligulata rhizome: an explanation of the underlying mechanisms. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 122:106-116.
85. Hennequin C, Lalanne V, Daudon M, et al., A new approach to studying inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystal growth. Urol Res 1993; 21(2):101-108.
86. Aggarwal A, Tandon S, Singla SK, et al., Diminution oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extraction of Tribulus terrestris. Int Braz J Urol. 2010;36(4): 480-489.
87. Nakagawa Y, Abram V, Parks JH, et al., Urine glycoprotein crystal growth inhibitor. Evidence for a molecular abnormality in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. J Clin Invest. 1985; 76:1455-1462.
88. Kabra SG, Kabra V, Banerji P, et al., In vitro calculogenesis: Methods to develop concretions of desired chemical composition. Indian J Exp Biol 1978:16(2):212-217.
89. Singla S, Jethi RK. A Simple Method for the study of in vitro carcinogenesis. Indian J Expt Biol 1981; 19:283-285.
90. Trinder P. Colorimetric Microdetermination of calcium in serum. Analyst. 1960; 85:889-894.
91. Gomori HD. A modification of colorimetric phosphorous determination for use with photoelectric colorimeter. J Lab Clin Med. 1941; 27: 955-60.
92. Chaudhary A, Singla SK, Tandon C. In vitro Evaluation of Terminalia arjuna on calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate crystallization. Indian J Pharm Sci 2010;72(3):340-345
93. Wagner A, Marc A, Engasser JM, et al., The use of Lactate dehydrogenase release kinetics for the evaluation of death and growth of mammalian cells in perfusion reactions. Biotechnol Bioeng 1992; 39:320-326.
94. Prasad K, Sujatha D, Bharathi K. Herbal drugs in urolithiasis a review. Pharmacognosy Review2007; 1: 175-179.
95. Gohel MD, Wong SP.Chinese herbal medicines and their efficacy in treating renal stones. Urological Research 2006;34: 365-372.
96. Barry H. Antioxidant effects: a basis for drug selection. Drugs 1991; 42: 569-605.
97. Ahmed A, Wadud A, Jahan N, et al., Efficacy of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn in chemically induced urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2013; 146: 411- 416.
98. Bashir S, Gilani AH. Antiurolithiatic effect of Bergenia ligulata rhizome: an explanation of the underlying mechanisms. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 122: 106-116.
99. Bashir S, Gilani AH, Siddiqui AA, et al., Berberis vulgaris root bark extract prevents hyperoxaluria induced urolithiasis in rats. Phytoth Res 2010; 24: 1250-1255.
100. Pareta SK, Patra KC, Mazumder PM, et al., Prophylactic role of Boerhaavia diffusa in ethylene glycol induced calcium oxalate urolithiasis. African J Urol 2011; 17: 28-36.
101. Shah AP, Patel SB, Patel KV, et al., Effect of Citrus medica Linn. in urolithiasis induced by ethylene glycol model. Iranian J Pharmacol Therap 2014; 13: 35-39.
102. Manjula K, Rajendran K, Eevera T, et al., Effect of Costus igneus stem extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in albino rats. Urol Res 2012; 40: 499-510.
103. Atmani F, Sadki C, Aziz M, et al., Cynodon dactylon extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis. Urol Res 2009; 37: 75-82.
104. Mi J, Duan J, Zhang J, et al., Evaluation of antiurolithic effect and the possible mechanisms of Desmodium styracifolium and Pyrrosiae petiolosa in rats. Urol Res 2012; 40:151-161.
105. Lin WC, Lai MT, Chen HY, et al., Protective effect of Flos carthami extract against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Urol Res 2012; 40: 655-661.
106. Ibrahim FY, El-Khateeb AY. Effect of herbal beverages of Foeniculum vulgare and Cymbopogon proximus on inhibition of calcium oxalate renal crystals formation in rats. Annals Agricul Sci 2013; 58: 221-229.
107. Bayir Y, Halici Z, Keles MS, et al., Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum extract as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model. J Ethnopharmacol2011; 138: 408-414.
108. Orhan N, Onaran M, Sen I, et al., Preventive treatment of calcium oxalate crystal deposition with immortal flowers. J Ethnopharmacol2015; 163: 60-67.
109. Laikangbam R, Devi MD. Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal deposition on kidneys of urolithiatic rats by Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract. Urol Res 2011; 40: 211-218.
110. Khan A, Khan SR, Gilani AH. Studies on the in vitro and in vivo antiurolithic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Urol Res 2012; 40:671-681.
111. Makasana A, Ranpariya V, Desai D, et al., Evaluation for the antiurolithiatic activity of Launaea procumbens against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in rats. Toxicol Rep 2014;1: 46-52.
112. Touhami M, Laroubi A, Elhabazi K, et al., Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model. Bio Med Central Urol 2007; 7:18.
113. Dharmalingam SR, Madhappan R, Chidambaram K, et al., Anti-urolithiatic activity of Melia Azedarach Linn leaf extract in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in male albino rats. Tropical J Pharm Res 2014 13: 391-397.
114. Karadi RV, Gadge NB, Alagawadi KR. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 105: 306-311.
115. Woottisin S, Hossain RZ, Yachantha C, et al., Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats. J Urol 2011; 185: 323-328.
116. Akanae W, Tsujihata M, Yoshioka I, et al., Orthosiphon grandiflorum has a protective effect in a calcium oxalate stone forming rat model. Urol Res 2010; 38: 89-96.
117. Moriyama MT, Suga K, Miyazawa K, et al., Inhibitions of urinary oxidative stress and renal calcium level by an extract of Quercus salicina Blume/Quercus stenophylla makino in a rat calcium oxalate urolithiasis model. Int J Urol 2009; 16: 397-401.
118. Bouanani S, Henchiri C, Griffoni EM, et al., Pharmacological and toxicological effects of Paronychia argentea in experimental calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 129: 38-45.
119. Rathod NR, Biswas D, Chitme HR, et al., Antiurolithiatic effects of Punica granatum in male rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2012; 140: 234-238.
120. Doddola S, Diviti R, Koganti B, et al., Effect of ethanolic extract of Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene against calculi producing diet induced urolithiasis. Indian J Natural Prod Resour 2010; 1: 314-321.
121. Nagar HK, Chandel HS, Rathore P, et al., Curative effect of extractive phytoconstituents of Psidium guajava leaves on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in experimental animals. MIT Int J Pharm Sci 2015;1: 31-37.
122. Divakar K, Pawar AT, Chandrasekhar SB, et al., Protective effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia roots against ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. Food ChemToxicol 2010; 48: 1013-1018.
123. Nasrabadi HT, Eteghad SS, Aghdam Z.The effects of the hydroalcohol extract of Rosa canina L. fruit on experimentally nephrolithiasic Wistar rats. Phytother Res 2012; 25: 78-85.
124. Doddola S, Pasupulati H, Koganti B, et al., Evaluation of Sesbania grandiflora for antiurolithiatic and antioxidant properties. J Natural Med 2008; 62:300-307.
125. Patel PK, Patel MA, Vyas BA, et al., Antiurolithiatic activity of saponin rich fraction from the fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. (Solanaceae) against ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2012; 144:160-170.
126. Kaur T, Bijarnia RK, Singla SK, et al., In vivo efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi anticalcifying protein in urolithiatic rat model. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 126: 459-462
127. Tiwari P, Kothiyal P, Ratan P. Antiurolithiatic effect of some polyherbal formulations used in experimentally induced urolithiasis: a review Int Res J Pharm 2017; 8 (5): 14-22.
128. Singh CM, Sachan SS. Management of urolithiasis by herbal drugs. J Nepal Pharm Assoc 1989; 7: 81-85.
129. Nirumand MC, Hajialyani M, Rahimi R, et al., Dietary plants for the prevention and management of kidney stones: preclinical and clinical evidence and molecular mechanisms. Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19; 765
65 Views | 76 Downloads
How to Cite
Chandel VK, Jain S, Choubey A. An Overview on Phyto-molecules and Screening Method of Antiurolithiatic Activity. JDDT [Internet]. 11Nov.2019 [cited 29Oct.2020];9(4-A):848-57. Available from: