An Overview on Phyto-molecules and Screening Method of Antiurolithiatic Activity
Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Kidney stones are a growing global problem. It is also known as Urolithiasis. Lithiasis is a condition where urinary calculus is formed in the kidney and urinary tract. It is a complicated urinary disorder that has gravely troubled the health and quality of human life. It has been associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure. Urinary stones affect 10-12% of the population in industrialized countries. There are only a few geographical areas in which the stone disease is rare, e.g., Germany and in the coastal areas of Japan. The etiology of kidney stone is multifactorial. The most common type of kidney stone is calcium oxalate formed at Randall’s plaque on the renal papillary surfaces. The mechanism of stone formation is a complex process which results from several physicochemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention of urinary stone constituents within tubular cells. These steps are modulated by an imbalance between factors that promote or inhibit urinary crystallization. Currently, there is no satisfactory drug to cure and/or prevent kidney stone recurrences. Conventional agents are being used to control kidney stone along with lifestyle management. Medicinal plants are found to be useful in this metabolic disorder from ancient days due to its no or low-toxic nature, easily available in rural areas, cheap; there are fewer chances of recurrence. Thus, further understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney stone formation is a research area to manage urolithiasis using new drugs. Therefore, this review has intended to provide compiled up-to-date information on kidney stone etiology, pathogenesis and prevention approaches and critically review the available literature on various medicinal plants with their antilithiatic activity and screening method of this activity to develop an effective drug to treat the disease.
Keywords: Kidney stones, Urolithiasis, Etiology, Calcium oxalate, Pathophysiology, Medicinal plants
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